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Chapter 3

PSYCH 1XX3 Chapter 3: NEUROSCIENCE
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 1XX3
Professor
Joe Kim
Semester
Winter

Description
NEUROSCIENCE: Neural Control of Behaviour: Brain made up of approx. 100 billion neurons, which can have bw 110,000 connections w other neurons, uses 20 of our O2 intake Decartes was dualist, said the mind was separate entity from biology that controlled our actions and thoughts, physical brain served as a connection bw body and mind CNS = encased in bone (brain, spinal cord) PNS = remaining nerve tissue (nerves and peripheral ganglia (small groups of neuron cell bodies)), efferent nerve fibers carry info outward from CNS to PNS, afferent nerve fibers carry info inward from PNS to CNS o PNS divided into 2 systems: Somatic nervous system: receives sensory info from sensory organs, controls voluntary movements Autonomic nervous system: controls things outside of our conscious awareness, ex. regulates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands Sympathetic division: involved w preparing body for emergencies, fight or fight, increase heart rate, dilate pupils, inhibition of digestion and contraction of bladderrectum, rush of adrenaline Parasympathetic division: rest or digest, slows heart, lowers BP, contracts pupils, increases gastrointestinal activity, secretion of digestive juices The Neuron: Category of cell specialized for communication via synaptic transmission Receptive zone: cell bodysoma contains most of the vital organelles which keep cell functioning, branching dendrites reach out to other neurons to receive and relay signals to be conveyed down the axon Transmission zone: axon exits cell body from elongated portion called the axon hillock, signal reaches axon terminal, and is transmitted further by terminal boutonsends to other neurons or effectors (cells such as muscles or glands capable of receiving and responding to nerve impulse) o o o o o o o o o o Glial cells: provide support, nourishment, insulation needed by the neurons o Work together w neurons, resting in bath of ions, chemicals, and blood vasculature Neuron subtypes:
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