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Chapter 5

Ch. 5 notes - Psychopathology 1.doc

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Christopher Teeter

Psychological DisordersIntroductionDefining AbnormalityThe 4 Ds 1Devianceabnormal thoughts emotions and behaviours deviate from what society thinks is acceptable Practices of minority groups are considered deviantnot wrong but differentEx major depressive disorderexcessive dec in normative mood regulationEx bipolar disorderepisodes of mania feel excessively elated2Distressneg feelings of individuals with psychological disordersMany report feelings of being deeply troubled by their illnessEx anxiety disorderexperience a seemingly never ending and pervasive sense of dread and anxietyNot all are accompanied by distressex sociopaths feel little if any guiltremorse for their wrongful behaviours3Dysfunctiona marked impairment in the ability to perform everyday functionsunable to engage in normal socialoccupational functioningmay contribute to failed marriages and friendshipsjob lossSome people may engage in maladaptive behaviour intentionally ex going on a hunger strike to protest4Dangerdangerousviolent behaviour directed at themselvesothers ex suicidal is a danger to their selfNot enough to make a diagnosis alonesome people may engage in riskydangerous behaviour intentionally ex not taking a medicationskydivingStigma of Psychological DisordersLabeling theoryapplication of a deviant label to someone can result in changes to selfperception and perception by others and a dec in social opportunitiesMental illness stereotypes are learning in socialization and reinforced to create rigid stereotypesDavid Rosenhan 1973 On Being Sane in Insane Placeseven health professionals are subject to the effects of labeling and stereotypingHimself and 7 other pseudo patients committed to different psychiatric hospitals around the US all 8 were deemed sane prior to studyAll 8 faked symptoms of schizophrenia and 78 were admitted and diagnosed with schizophreniaOnce admitted they reported being dehumanized and essentially ignored by hospital staff despite returning to their normal behaviourPsychiatric staff continued to interpret their behaviour as abnormal and further evidence of mental illness ex when the pseudo patients took notes while in the ward the staff noted it as peculiar notetaking behaviourAfter 19 days all of them were discharged and given the label schizophreniain remission no longer appears to have symptoms To reduce problems associated with labeling the APA recommends that clinicians apply diagnostic labels only to peoples disorders and not them ex a person with schizophrenia vs a schizophrenicforces focus to be on the individual rather than on the diagnosisMedical Students DiseaseA condition reported in medical students when they perceive themselvesothers around them to have the symptoms of the diseases they are studyingSection 1 Classifying Disorders The DSMIVA label describes a set of symptomsa syndromeSymptomany characteristic of a persons actions thoughts or feelings that could be a potential indicator of mental illnessSyndromea collection of interrelated symptoms manifested by any given individualDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSMofficial guideline for the diagnosis of psychological disordersis used as the standard diagnostic reference guide by clinicians researchers and psychologists in North America most current thedition is the 4 with text revision DSMIVTR2 main functionsCategorize and describe mental disorders so that clinician have a common st of criteria for applying a diagnostic label to their patientsreduces ambiguity and subjectivity in diagnosesAllows researchers to have a common language when discussing their cases and research findingsDSM CategorizationDSMIII was the first to introduce a multiaxial system of classificationrequires assessment of individuals to be placed on 5 separate axes describing important mental health factorsDiagnoses of psychological disorders are made on axis I and IIones made on I are state dependant individuals current conditionstate of functioningaxis II describes disorders that are trait dependant enduring maladaptive problems with the persons functioningAxes IIIV are used to provide additional info on the individuals overall functioningIIIcurrent physical condition ex diabetesheart diseasemedical conditions may causecontribute to mental illnessIVpsychosocialenvironmental stressors that may affect diagnosis treatment prognosis of disorders on I or II ex recent death in familydivorcenatural disastersVglobal assessment of functioningestimates made on individuals current level of adaptive functioning social occupational and school activitiesBefore a diagnosis can be made 2 criteria must be metThe disordered behaviour must originate from within the personcant be a reaction to ext factorsDisorder must be involuntaryperson cannot control symptomsOther Features of the DSMIVProvides additional info on psychological disorders incl epidemiology prevalence comorbidity prognosis and cultural background infoEpidemiologystudy of the distribution of mentalphysical disorders in a popPrevalencepercentage of a pop that exhibits a disorder during a specific time period
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