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Psychology (1,309)
PSYCH 1XX3 (270)
Joe Kim (3)


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McMaster University
Joe Kim

Psychopathology The For D’s • The four D’s are a fixed set of criteria to broadly define abnormalities 1. Deviance 2. Distress 3. Dysfunction 4. Danger • What is consider abnormal can vary between people, cultures, and tome periods • Exhibiting one or more of these characteristics does not necessarily label someone as having a psychological disorder Deviance • Refers to have thoughts, emotions and behaviours that fall far outside the standards of what others are doing • Not all people that differ from the norms of a group have a psychological disorder (i.e. the cultural practises of minority populations a psychological disorders • Deviance includes those that fall well below and well above the standard of the group Distress • Experiences of intense negative feelings due to their behaviour, such as anxiety, sadness, or despair • A person who is free of distress is not necessarily psychologically healthy (i.e. bipolar patients experience manic phases where they often feel extremely elated and larger than life, and antisocial individuals who feel no remorse or distress when causing harm to other people) Dysfunction • The behaviour of a psychological abnormal individual tends to interfere with the person’s ability to function properly in their daily lives • Dysfunctional behaviours are often described as maladaptive because they prevent an individual from adapting well to their environment Danger • To oneself or to another • For an example engaging in risky behaviours that lead to drug addiction or a person who engages in violence towards others DSM • Has two main functions: 1. Categories and describes mental disorders so that clinicians will have a common set of criteria for applying a diagnostic label to the symptoms of their patients 2. Allows researchers to talk to each other about mental disorders using common language • General diagnostic criteria outlined by DSM 1. The disordered behaviour must generate from within the person rather than being a reaction to something in the environment 2. The disorder is involuntary, and the person suffering from the disorder in unable to control the symptoms that they experience • The DSM attempts to group together disorders that have similar sets of symptoms, with the assumption that similarities suggest a common cause and that they can be similarly treated • New versions of the DSM can be released when researchers discover new information about specific disorders , leading to changes in the criteria for diagnosis and groupings of disorders Functions of Models • DSM does not provide treatment plans for disorders, or an explanation for the disorder • Models of psychopathology are used in an attempt to explain the causes of the disorder and to help decide how to treat it Biological Models • Also known as medical or disease model • Assumes that a psychological disorder results from malfunction in the brain, due to physical damage or because of abnormal activity of neurotransmitters • Usually points to genetics, nutrition, disease, and stress to explain brain malfunction • Treatment often relies on drug therapy, in extreme cases, treatment may include electroconvulsive shock or brain surgery Psychodynamic Model • One of the earliest models of psychological disorders (Freud) • Believes that mental disorders are rooted in an internal malfunction • Psychological malfunction • A mental disorder usually attributed to maladaptive attempts to deal with strong , unconscious conflicts • Freud believed that these conflicts stemmed from unresolved childhood issues • Drug treatment cannot cure a mental disorder it only alleviates the symptoms • Psychological therapy such as psychoanalysis can get to the root of
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