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Chapter 16

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Richard B Day

Psych 2AP3: Abnormal Psychology – Major Disorders Chapter 16: Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence Maladaptive Behaviour in Different Life Periods - Important to view a child’s behaviour in reference to normal childhood development - Varying clinical pictures: distinct from disorders of other life periods - Special vulnerabilities of young children:  Don’t have complex and realistic view of themselves and their world, less self-understanding, do not yet develop stable sense of identity or understanding of what is expected of them  Threats are tempered less by considerations of the past or future and tend to be seen as disproportionately important  Limited perspectives lead them to use unrealistic concepts to explain events  More dependent on other people making them highly vulnerable to experience rejection, disappointment, and failure  Lack experience in dealing with adversity making problem management seem insurmountable - The classification of childhood and adolescent disorders:  The same classification system that had been developed for adults was used for children  Ignored the fact that environmental factors play an important part in the expression of symptoms  Symptoms weren’t considered with respect to child’s developmental level Common Disorders of Childhood - Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): characterized by difficulties that interfere with effective task-oriented behaviour in children – particularly impulsivity, excessive or exaggerated motor activity and difficulties in sustaining attention  Lower intelligence  Social problems  Inatention, hyperactivity and impulsivity  Causal factors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder:  Genetic and social environmental precursors  Parents of hyperactive children had psychological problems  Different EEG patterns occurring in children with ADHD  Treatments and outcomes:  Amphetamine: decreases over activity and distractibility; increases alertness  Ritalin: lower the amount of aggressiveness, decreased blood flow to brain resulting in impaired thinking and memory loss, disruption of growth hormones, suppression of growth in the body and brain, insomnia. Short-term treatment  Strattera: norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, reduces symptoms of ADHD. Decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting and fatigue, liver damage. Behavioural or emotional changes that increase risk of self-harm.  Combination of psychological interventions and medications  ADHD beyond adolescence:  Many hyperactive children retain ADHD into early adulthood or go on to have other psychological problems  Longitudinal research - Autism  Developmental disorder that involves a wide range of problematic behaviours including deficits in language, and perceptual and motor development, defective reality testing, and an inability to function in social situations  The clinical picture in autism:  Child seems apart or aloof from others, even in earliest stages of life, ex.:
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