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Chapter 2

Ch. 2 - History and People.pdf

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Richard B Day

 Historicviewsof AbnormalBehaviour  Trephining(6500B.C.E) o Chip away an area of the skull until a hole was cut through the skull o Hole allowed evil spirits to leave  Ancient EgyptianPapyri(writtenrecords) o Recognized the brain as the site of mental function (Edwin Smith) o Relied on incantations and magic for explaining and curing diseases (Ebers)  Demonology,Gods& Magic o Attribute abnormal behaviour to a demon or god taking possession of someone  Good spirit: speech had religious or mystical significance  Evil spirit: excited or overactive and acts against religion, most common o Treatment was usually exorcism  Hippocrates o Mental disorders had natural causes and appropriate treatments  Due to brain pathology, heredity and injury  Little knowledge of physiology o 3 major categories based on clinical records  Mania  Melancholia  Phrenitis (brain fever) o Personality/temperament explanation = four humors Blood (sanguine), Phlegmatic, Bile (Choleric), black bile (melancholeric)   Fluids combine in different proportions and whichever is dominant determines their personality o Dreams are important in personality o Recognized the importance of environment in treatment  EarlyphilosophicalConcepts o Plato  Mentally ill people were not responsible for their criminal acts  Individual differences and sociocultural influences shape thinking and behaviour  Also thought mental disorders could also be caused by religion or mysticality  Believed in 24/7 care (hospital) admittance and talking psychotherapy o Aristotle  Described consciousness  We think in ways to eliminate pain and achieve pleasure  Believed in Hippocratices Four Humour Theory  Latergreek andromanthought o Therapies involved lots of aesthetic and relaxing methods  Walks, dancing, nature, massage, exercise  Also included: bloodletting, purging and mechanical restraints o Galen  Anatomy of nervous system  Divided psychological disorders into physical and mental categories  Appointed causes to psychological disorders o Therapy  Pleasant, comfortable therapies  Contrariis contrarius  Opposite by opposite  Exp. Drink cold wine, in a hot tub  Middle Ages o Islamic forms of treatment were more humane than european approaches  First mental hospital in Baghdad = humane care  Inquiry into abnormality was little and was believed to be only superstition or ritual  Not humane treatment or inquiry into the mentally disturbed o Martin Luther - German, demonology o Near the end in Europe,  Supernatural explanations grew in popularity  Sin wasn't always the cause though!  Mass Madness/hysteria  Simultaneous group onset of mental disorders, usually hysteria  Peak during 14th and 15th centuries  Currently known as: mass psychogenic illness  Attributing body changes or sensations to serious disease  Symptoms appear rapidly and "spread to others"  The "index person" first person to report symptoms may actually have something, but they misinterpret the symptoms Usually occurs after an environmental event or trigger (heavy smog)   Tarantism Uncontrollable impulse to dance when bitten by a spider   Spread everywhere and became Saint Vitus Dance  Lycanthropy  People believe they are possessed by wolves and intimidated them  Koro  Fear of genital disappearance and death in Nigeria  Epidemic disease (black death) during the 14th/15th century made it hard to believe that these terrible things had natural causes and thus they believed they were in our power to control  Exorcism and Witchcraft  Religious acts to drive out the devil from people who are believed to be possessed  Currently, the Roman Catholic Church in Italy has 350 exorcist-priests in Italy  Some mentally ill people were tried as witches, but most were just poor women who are rude and angry  Perception that witchcraft and mental illness were connected wasn't exactly true…  Physically possessed = mentally disordered  Spiritually possessed = witches  Humanitarian Approaches  Paracelsus o Made the idea of psychic causes for mental illness and wanted treatment by bodily magnetism = hypnosis o Believed the moon had a supernatural influence on the brain  Weyer o Founder of modern psychopathology o Argued that all those punished for witchcraft actually had mental disorders  EarlyAsylums & Shrines o Asylum = places of refuge for the care of the mentally ill  Lived and died among filth and cruelty, more a storage house for the insane o Treatments were aggressive, aimed to choose rationality over insanity and restore balance in body and brain  Bleeding, drugs, hydrotherapy, shocks, restraints etc.  HumanitarianReform o Philippe Pinel  Treat mental patients with kindness, peace, order and treated them as sick people Discontinued harsh practices, started talking and giving them exercise and nice  activities  Miraculous improvement o William Tuke  York Retreat: pleasant country house where mentally ill worked, rested and lived in a religious atmosphere o Benjamin Rush  Founder of North American psychiatry  Transitional figure between old a new era: had good and bad practices o Moral management  Focused on patient's social, individual and occupational needs  Rehabilitation of their character rather than mental disorder  Manual labour, spiritual discussion and humane treatment  Very effective  Demise of moral management o Ethnic prejudice among the rising immigrant population o Rise of mental hygiene movement: focused on the physical well-being of hospitalized mental patients  Comfort levels increase, but mental problems were not helped  Keep patients comfortable until a medical cure was found o Biomedical movement: all disorders have biological explanations and treatments  Keep patient comfortable until a biological cure was discovered o DIX and the mental hygiene movement  Advocacy for humane treatment for the poor and forgotten people in mental institutions  Critics  Interfere with moral therapy, interrupted looking fora real cure o Military and the mentally ill  Detect mental health problems that could interfere with war duty  Alcohol was a key cause of psychological problems in soldiers and ability to shoot  19thcenturyviews andcauses o Hospitals were controlled by church people and used traditional moral management therapy and other physical, cruel medical procedures Alienists = psychiatrists had a very small role and were called only in times of  crisis  Changingattitudesintheearly 20thcentury o Mental patients lived under harsh conditions despite the attemp
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