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Psychology (1,468)
PSYCH 2AP3 (97)
Chapter 1

Ch.1 - Basics and Terms.pdf

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Richard B Day

 Terms  Family aggregation o Whether or not a disorder runs in families  Abnormality/ disorder o No consensus on a definition o Prototype kind of model of abnormality  Assess the degree a given person resembles the prototype o Varies with society and time o The world around us: Elements ofAbnormality  1. Suffering  Psychological suffering  Not necessary or sufficient element of abnormality 2. Maladaptiveness  Behaviour interferes with our well-being and ability to enjoy our work and relationships  Not all disorders require maladaptive behaviour  Deviancy  Statistically rare and very undesirable, make value judgments Violation of the Fail to followconventional social and moral rules   standards of  Depends on magnitude of violation and how society often others violate it  Social discomfort  Violating a social rule causing those around them to feel uncomfortable and uneasy  Doing this is abnormal behaviour  Irrationality and  When someone uncontrollably does something unpredictability unconventional and irrational  Classifyingdisorders  Provides us with nomenclature (a naming system) and allows us to structure information in a helpful way  Social and political implications of classifying disorders to further treat them  Symptom Syndrome o Single indicator of a problem Group or cluster of symptoms that all occur together o Affect, behaviour or cognition  Disadvantages? o Lose personal details and information o Stigma around being diagnosed and the stereotypes of a certain disorder o Labeling: person's self-concept becomes defined by their diagnoses  DSM-IVdefinitionofmentaldisorder o DSM-IV definition Significant behavioural or psychological syndrome or pattern   Associated with distress, disability or impairment in 1+ important function  Not a predictable and culturally reasonable response to an event  Reflects behavioural, psychological or biological dysfunction o Problems?  "clinically signficicant" ?  How much distress or impariment?  What is culturally sanctioned?  Exp. African tribe members scar themselves = normal  Dysfunction? o Wakefield's improved definition  Harmful dyfunction  Harm wr2 social values  Dysfunction wr2 failure to perform its evolutionary design  Good working definition, but still fails to provide a fully adequate definition  Causes significant distress or disability  Is not an expectant response to a particular event  Is a manefestation of a mental dysfunction  Cultural Influence  Inuit, Native and Southeast Asian don't have words for mental illness  Chinese describe illness via physical symptoms not mental Most literature is from W. Europe, N. America and Australia   Culture-specificdisorders o Taijin Kyofusho  Japanese anxiety disorder  Fear that my body will offend, embarrass or make others uncomfortable o Ataque de nervios  Latin Mediterranean version of showing distress  Sudden out of control response to a stressful event that later dissappears and is forgotten o Abnormal behaviour  Behaviour that deviates from the norms of the society in which it is enacted  Jane Murphy  Universal clusters of behaviour that are regarded as abnormal  Studied Yoruba and Yupik tribes  Howcommonare MentalDisorders  Depression o Women to men's = 2:1 o Jew's, men = women's depression rates  Jewish men > other men  Epidemiology o Study of the distribution of disease, disorders and health-related behaviours o Prevalence  Number of active cases in a population during any given period of time, % of population with disorder  Point prevalence One-year prevalence Lifetime prevalence Prop. of actual, activeAnyone who suffered How many people suffered cases of a disorder in from a disorder at any from a disorder at any time given population at time during the whole in their lives any instant in time year January 1st of 2014 Entirety of 2013 Even if they recovered  Most current one-year prevalence estimates for DSM-IV disordersCCHS  Major depressive episode 4.5% Manic episode 0.8% Mood disorder 4.9% Panic disorder 1.6% Agoraphobia 0.7% Social Anxiety 3.0% Any anxiety disorder 4.7% Alcohol dependence 2.6% Drug dependence 0.7% Any substance dependence 3.0% Any measured disorder 10.4% study  NCS-R  Widespread occurrence of comorbidity among diagnosed disorders  2+ disorders in the same person  Most common in people with a severe, serious disorder o Incidence Number of new cases that occur over a given period of time (usually 1 year)   Lower than prevalence figures o Treatment  Only 25% of 15 - 24 year olds with mental health problems sought help  Receiving treatment within a year is more
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