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PSYCH 2B03 (108)
Chapter 10

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Jennifer Ostovich

Chapter 10: Basics of psychoanalysis FOUR KEY IDEAS: PsychicDeterminism - determinism: the idea that everything that happens has a cause (in principle) that can be identified - psychic determinism: assumption that everything that happens in a person’s mind, and therefore everything that a person thinks and does, also has a specific cause o no miracles, free will, random accidents  there must be a reason, and it lies somewhere in the structure/dynamics of personality (lies in hidden part of the mind) - many important mental processes are unconscious Internal Structure - the mind has an internal structuremade of parts that can function independently and which, in some cases, conflict with each other - brain vs. mind: brain is the organ, mind is the psychological result of what the brain and the rest of the body do - mind divided into (1) id: irrational, emotional (2) ego: rational (3) superego: moral - mind includes separate and independent structures that can process different thoughts and motivations at the same time (though not necessarily divided neatly into 3) Psychic Conflict & compromise - stems from the assumption that the mind is divided. But instead of one over the other, make compromises - Compromise formation: ego’s main job is to find amiddle course between the competing demands of motivation, morality and practicality  result of compromise is what individual consciously thinks and does Mental Energy - Psychological apparatus of themind needs energy to make it go  psychic energy/libido (only a fixed amount is available at a givenmoment) - Freud: Energy available for doing one thing is unavailable for another (conservation of E) - Some implications that have been refuted: fighting back after steam build up when you are angry doesn’t release the energy, it makes you more angry - It is themind’s capacity for processing information, rather than it’s energy that is limited - One of the goals of psychoanalysis is to free up more psychic energy/computing capacity for the challenges of daily life by removing neurotic conflicts one by one CONTROVERSY: - one of themost controversial theories - people complained that it was unscientific, dirty, complained about Freud’s ethics, manners, personal life - both psychoanalysts and humanists begin the psychologicalendeavour with the attempt to know themselves PSYCHOANALYSIS, LIFE AND DEATH: - libido: sexual drive (creation, protection and enjoyment of life and with creativitiy, productivity and growth)  exists in every person (drive towards life) - thanatos: drive towards death - doctrine of opposites: everything implies, even requires, its opposite: life requires death, happiness requires sadness etc. (the extremes are more similar to each other than each to whatever is in the middle) PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT - psychological development is the story of how life energy/libido becomes invested and thenredirected over an individual’s early years - 3 aspects to each stage: o Physical focus: energy is concentrated and gratification is obtained o Psychological theme: related both to the physical focus and to the demands on the child from the outside world during development o Adult character type: associated with being fixated in that particular stage, rather than fully developing toward the next one - If fail to resolve the psychological issues of each stage  problems Oral stage - lack of motor control, physical coordination  but can suck - physical focus (where psychic energy is focused):mouth/lips/tongue - psychological theme: dependency - if needs are fulfilled move to another stage - things that might go wrong: o needs not fulfilled  basic mistrust of people, never be able to deal with dependency relationships o baby’s need fulfilled so instantly  never occurs to her that the world could respond differently, will find it shocking - once again, it’s the doctrine of opposites: extreme childhood experiences will yield equivalent pathological results - an adult personality type that results from extreme experiences: oral character o refuse to get help, determined to go it alone  accomplishment is reached only if they achieved it w/o assistance o passive individuals that wait around  angry about failure to get what they want (think they can get whatever they want) o they may switch from one extreme to the other Anal stage - toilet training - the ego also develops - begins to move around effectively, develop urges - physical focus: anus, and associated organs of elimination - psychological theme: self control and obedience - child begins to test boundaries - unreasonable expectations can be traumatic  things might go wrong: o parents insistently make demands that child is not capable of meeting  psychological trauma o never demanding child to have self control - parents: permissive  authoritative  authoritarian (authoritative parents yielded the best results) - adult character: anal character (personality organized around control issues) – once again there are two types that are exact opposites o obsessive, compulsive, orderly, rigid (tries to control every aspect, often seems equally happy to submit to an authority figure) o little or no self control, unable to do anything on time or because it is necessary, be chaotic and disorganized, compulsive need to defy authority - both is the same problem - ideal is to determine how and to what degree to organize your life and how you relate dot authority in order to achieveyour goals Phallic stage - begins with the realization that boys and girls are different:boys have a penis and girls do not - basic task is to come to terms with sex differences and all that they imply - psychological theme: gender identity and sexuality o identification: they figure out what it means to be a boy/girl by taking on their parent’s attitudes, values, ways of relating to opposite sex - related themes: love, sexuality, fear, jealousy - adult consequences: morality, development of sexuality (w
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