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PSYCH 2B03 (108)
Chapter 12


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Jennifer Ostovich

CHAPTER 11: PSYCHOANALYSIS AFTERFREUD - Most move away from Freud’s emphasis on build in sexual and aggressive instincts  focus on interpersonal aspects of life - Special concern about early attachments [attachment theory]- how attachment to attachment figures can buffer in times of stress - Insight from Freud: relationships mediated through mental images o Objects: partially accurate mental images of people [object relations theory] INTERPRETING FREUD - Interpreting vs. revising - Need to interpret theory in ways that will sound reasonabletoday - Many people have integrated their own ideas/perspectives/interpretations when describing Freud  the more you do, the more close you are to developing another theory LATTER-DAY ISSUES AND THEORIESTS Common themes of neo-freudian thought - 3 common differences o View sex as less important  interpret libido as general motivation toward life and creativity( as opposed to just sexual wellspring of thought and behaviour)  Freud said that it’s because of anxiety that they deny the role of sex o Less emphasis on unconscious mental processes and more on conscious thought  Ego psychology: focus on perception, memory, learning, rational, conscious thinking (over sexuality, psychic conflict, unconsciousness)  Lovinger: development = development of ego, ego’s function is tomake sense of everything a person experiences  from understanding how individual is separate from the world and from themother, how to related to society (few become independent people whoappreciate and support the independence of others) o Less emphasis on instinctual drives and mental life as the source of psychological difficulties  focus on interpersonal relationships  Look into the day to day relationships and how problems may arise from difficulties in encounters or how these keyrelationship patterns replay Inferiority and compensation: Adler - First major disciple to end up at odds with Freud, thought he focused toomuch on sex as ultimate motivator and organizer - Social interest: desire to relate positively and productively with other people - Organ inferiority: individuals are motivated to attain equality with or superiority over other people in order to compensate for whatever they felt in childhood was their weakest aspect o E.g. someone who felt physically weak as a child  strive for physical strength - Masculine protest: compensation for the past; desire to act and become powerful because of feeling inadequate or inferior o Particular acute for men: feel that men are supposed to be the more powerful gender, yet growing up, mom was the dominant figure  compensate/securemasculinity by choice of vehicle, manner of driving (superficial) - The quest to overcome inferiority as a child can influence adult behaviour (style of life) - Terms that root in Adlerian thoughts: Inferiority complex, lifestyle The collective unconscious, persona, and personality: Jung - Jung had an increasing interest in mystical and spiritual matters - Collectiveunconsciousness: as a result of human history, all people share inborn racialmemories and ideas, most of which reside in unconscious - Archetypes: basic images o The core of how people think about the world (conscious +unconscious) o The hero, devil, supreme being  shows up in dreams, thoughts, mythologies etc. - Persona: socialmask one wears in public dealings o Person fails to advertise all aspects of the self equally, keeps certain aspects private  can be dangerous as individual comes to identifymore with persona > self - Anima: idea/prototype held in the mind of a male (his feminine side  understands women through his lens of anima - Animus: idealized image of themale held in the mind of a female (her masculine side) o Concepts shapes responses to the opposite sex  can cause problems if they match poorly - Introverts vs. extroverts - Classification of 4 basic ways of thinking o Rational thinking: recognizemeaning o Feeling: tell the value o Sensing: what is actually present o Intuiting: points to possibilities as to whence it came/whither it is goingin a given situation o We use all of them, but to a different extent (e.g. engineermay emphasize rational thinking, artist emphasize feeling)  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) used to determine which kind of thinking an individual uses the most o Best to achieve a balance, though rare - Freud: rational, Jung: intuitive Feminine psychology and basic anxiety: Horney - Never feuded with Freud, influential in history of psychoanalysis - Self-analysis - Disagreed with Freud’s portrayal of women: women wish tobe men probably because they see men as being more free than women to pursue their own interests and ambitions (not because of penis envy) o Women may lack confidence/overemphasize love relationships as source of fulfillment  due to society structure - Along lines with Freud: adult behavior based on efforts to overcome basic anxiety acquired in childhood  neurotic needs o Needs that people feel but are neither realistic nor truly desirable o E.g. need to be loved by everyone, independent of everyone etc. o Mind tries to pursue them even though theymay be contradictory may lead to self-defeating behaviour/relationships problem Psychosocial development: Erikson - Important revisionist of Freud - Not all conflicts take place in unconscious  many conflicts are conscious (e.g. choose between careers, lovers) - Psychosocial (vs. psychosexual) theory of development o Basic conflicts arise at different stages of life  instead of physical focus on libido, Erikson looked at the conflicts at each stage and their possible outcomes o Covers development throughout life - Stages of development: o Basic trust vs. mistrust: (~oral stage) child learns whether needs/wants will bemet/overindulged/ignored  satisfaction and frustration  develops hope (positive, notarrogant attitude towards life) and confidence that basic needs will be met o Autonomy vs. shameand doubt: (~anal) conflict arises- who is in charge, wants to control own life but needs to obey  in some cases will lead to anal character o Initiative vs. guilt: (phallic)child begins to anticipate/fantasize about life as an adult  adults need torespond properly, if not child will feel guilty and back off from taking initiative in her development towards adulthood  child will development principled adult morality:moral rules applied with flexibility and wisdom  *reinterpreted Freud w/o full Oedipal crisis in the phallic stage o Industry vs. inferiority: (~latency) develops skills and attitudes to succeed in world of work/contribute to society  Control imaginations and unfocused E to get on with tasks of developing competence, workmanship etc. o Identity vs. identity confusion: adolescent strives to figureout who he is and what is and is not important  Freud’s theory stops with genital stage (some time after puberty), Erikson thinks development continues through lifetime  Individuals choose goals that are meaningful, useful, consistent o intimacy vs. isolation: (end identity conflict, young adulthood) find intimate life partner to share experiences and further in development o Generativity vs. stagnation (middle age): should avoid temptation to just stop, but toraise and nurture next generation to ensure progress  Retirees who vote against taxes to support schools, yuppies who don’t have children  stagnation o Integrity vs.despair: (old age) face prospect of death, regret earlier mistakes? Developed wisdom? Does person have anything of value/interest to the next generation? - People progress according to developmental tasks that different phases of life require because of society’s structure (not according to physical/genital maturation) - 2 major contributions by Erikson: (1) societal basis of psychological development- as described above (2) life-span development o Development is not limited to children, ongoing task and opportunity throughout life  huge influence on modern psychology Object relations theory: Klein and Winnicott - Object relations theory: analysis of interpersonal relationships o Objects: emotionally important people - Relationships is a major source of pleasure and pain - We can only relate to people via the imagesof them we hold in our minds (images do not always match reality  mismatch can cause problems) - Rooted from Freud’s idea that supego was built from childhood identifications with important people, and we repeat important psychological patterns in new relationships through transference - 4 principle themes: o Every relationship has elements of satisfaction and frustration (pleasure and pain)  Baby loves mothers breast as it provides nutrition, warmth etc. but it is also frustrating because it’s not always full and available (demands are unreasonable but because they are only based on id’s primary process of thinking) o Mix of love and hate  Cannot satisfy someone w/o frustrating her sometimes  love will never be completely unmixed with frustration and resentment o Distinction between parts of the love object and the wholeperson  Using a person’s attributes for one’s own enjoyment is verydifferent from loving the whole person  E.g. complex for baby to appreciatemother for more than just what she provides (mother = breast), enjoy partner’s sense of humor does not equal to loving the partner himself  To move beyond appreciating superficial aspects of people to loving them as whole person is difficult and rarely accomplished o The psych of the baby (and the adult) is aware of and disturbed by these contradictory feelings  Envy because baby desires breast’s power for herself, anger because there’s not enough, fear because she dreads losing it, guilt because if she harms it she’ll loose it [Klein]  Angry that bf is not always available, envy his power over you, fear of losing, guilt over secret negative reactions - Melanie Klein: theories based on work with children, earliest to attempt psychoanalytic treatment with the young o Communicate, diagnose children through play o Play allows symbolic expression of emotions o Children often split their important love objects into 2 parts: wish to worship and protect good part because they
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