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Chapter 17

Chapter 17 What you know about you.pdf

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2B03
Professor
Jennifer Ostovich

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Chapter 17 What you know about you- The Self - Me: collection of statements you could make about yourself - I: the little person in the head (homunculus), the soul, which experiences your life and makes your decisions The Self Across Cultures Is the self a cultural artefact? - Americans vs. Hindu Indians: 50% Americans used personality traits such as friendly and cheap, whereas only 20% Indians used them  is the American-style sense of self a distinctly western idea? o Since 20% of them did use it  idea is not totally foreign o The long winded descriptions may essentially mean the same things - Still deserves attention  traits used less often than they are in western cultures o Not that they lack a sense of self Individualist and collectivist selves - study the nature of the self across cultures - individualism and collectivism - Western self is more of a separate entity, and eastern self is more integrated into the social and cultural context o May explain why self-expression is less in Eastern culture Self regard - individualist’s need for positive self-regard may be feltless acutely by a member of a collectivist culture - e.g. Japanese may not have to pervasive need to think well of themselves that is so characteristic of N Americans  they tie their individual well-being to that of a larger group - students respond differently to success, failure and negative self-relevant information  Canadian college students search for ways to think well of themselves ifthey failed a test, Canadians deny the task/persist less if they failed on the first one Consistency - self determination - individualist view of the self assumes that the cause of behavior lies within the person  expected to behave consistently from situation to situation (consistency associated with mental health) - collectivist might be expected to change his behaviour more as a function of the particular immediate situation o less pressure to behave consistently and less conflicted about inconsistent behaviour o emotional experience varies across situations more - consistency can be conceptualized and analyzed in 2 ways: o degree to which an individual varies his behavior or experiences from one situation to the next  absolute consistency o degree to which an individual maintains his differences from other people across situations  relative consistency o e.g. brave person might be nervous in burning house than in a normal classroom (low absolute consistency), but they still might be the most confident person present in both situations (high relative consistency) - Japanese had more inconsistent emotional experiencein an absolute sense (emotions changed more from one situation to the next) but they had equally consistent emotional experience in a relative sense (happier than others in one situation also tended to be happier in another situation) o While Members of a collectivist culture may be more inconsistent in an absolute sense than members of individualistic cultures, individual differences and associated personality traits appear to be equally important in both contexts The Contents of the Self - the me includes not just personality traits but our body, home, possessions and everything we hold dear - psychological self: central part of the self- our abilities,personalities o your self image and need to maintain it modifies your behaviour and organizes your vast array of memories about yourself as well as your impressions and judgements of other people - self knowledge has two types: o declarative knowledge: facts, impressions that we consciously know and can describe o procedural knowledge: knowledge expressed through actions rather than words  e.g a shy person will avoid other people whenever possible  may not consciously realize how characteristic this behaviour is (well, they might know unconsciously)  includes patterns of social skills, styles of relating to others that comprise the relational self and unconscious self knowledge that resides in the implicit self The Declarative Self - comprises all your conscious knowledge or opinions about your own personality traits - (1) overall opinion about whether you are good, bad, worthy, unworthy or somewhere in between  self esteem - (2) more detailed opinion that contains everything you know or think you know about your traits and abilities  may be correct or not Self esteem - low SE is correlated with dissatisfaction, hopelessness, loneliness, delinquency and depression - related to suicidal rates, although also to fear of death - SE tends to suffer when you have failed in eyes of your social group  motivates you to restore reputation (evolutionary roots) - High SE means success and acceptance by one’s social group - If you say phrases that are too extreme (suppose to be uplifting), it may have a boomerang effect and make person feel worse - People who self-enhance (think they are better than they actually are) run into problems in relationships, mental health and adjustements - Overly high SE can lead to behavior that is arrogant, abusive, criminal - Narcissism is associated with high SE that is brittle because it is unrealistic o When provoked, will retaliate in offending ways - Promoting psychological health is not jus trying to make someone feel better about themselves o Need it raise SE through legit experiences (accuracy) The self-schema - some believe that the declarative self resides in the self-schema  includes all ideas about the self, organized into a coherent system - person reaches into this memory system when asked about their personality - can be identified using S, B data or both - identified college students who were schematic for the traits of dependence and sociability by asking them to rate themselves on a series of scales o if this indicated hta thtey were extremely sociable and they also rated his sociability important  deemed schematic for that trait o used California psychological inventory to gather self ratings on traits of responsibility and sociability  when S data indicated exceptionally highscore on responsibility  participant deemed schematic for that trait - also gathered B data through reaction times: read words such as friendly on a screen and responded by pressing me or not me  responded to relevant traits more quickly than did aschematics - implication: one’s self view (conceptualized as a schema or a trait) may have important consequences for how one processes information o being schematic for a trait makes you an expert about that trait  tends to see the world in terms dictated by their expertise, this limits their view of the world o fail to test possibilities beyond limits of expertise, fail to see beyond boundaries of own self-image - schema embodies knowledge based on past experience but not on any particular past experience o can loose all memory and still be able to describe personality accurately o could describe herself in ways of how she had changed during the past year o man almost lost all memory of specific events of his life but still had general knowledge of himself that agreed with others impressions of him o your self view would not change even if you lost memory of your past  your impressions of what you are like does not depend on memory for specific things you’ve done once its formed Self-reference and memory - another indication for the deep roots of the self is its implications for memory - if you repeat something over and over in your mind, this rehearsal will be sufficient to move the information into your long term memory (LTM)?  nope o not just repeat it but you have to think about it (elaboration) o the longer and more complex the processing that piece of information receives  more likely it is to get transformed into LTM o so ask questions (do i agree, does it relate), not just read it over and over again - good way to remember is to think about how it relates to one’s self o the reason for this is that your self-schema is well usedand anything that’s tied in with it can be easily retained and remains accessible o think about how information might be self-relevant o self-reference effect: the enhancement of LTM that comes from thinking of how information relates to the self  a particular area of the frontal cortex might be specialized to process this kind of information  explains why your most personally meaningful memories stick with you the longest  might work differently in different cultures: in Chinesecultures, information thought abou tin terms of self and parents is remembered better  suggests that the self concept might contain parents, supporting the independent/dependent self-concept model Self-efficacy - the conscious self schema contains our ideas about our characteristics and capabilities and it affects what we do - ~Bandura’s self efficacy. Our opinions about our capabilities set the limits on what we will attempt - Dangers in persuading people that they cannot do certain things. Media often gives implicit but powerful portrayals o E.g. certain races are not as capable, Barbie cannot do math, girls shouldn’t do math o Can have very important consequences especially for children - Dweck: Beliefs that one develops about oneself forms the basic foundations of personality o Some people have self views that lead them to anticipate being rejected by others, while other people anticipate acceptance  has consequences for how these peopl
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