Textbook Notes (368,566)
Canada (161,966)
Psychology (1,468)
PSYCH 2B03 (108)
Chapter 17

Chapter 17 What you know about you 3.pdf

7 Pages
Unlock Document

Jennifer Ostovich

Chapter 17 What you know about you- The Self - Me: collection of statements you could make about yourself - I: the little person in the head (homunculus), the soul, which experiences your life and makes your decisions The Self Across Cultures Is the self a cultural artefact? - Americans vs. Hindu Indians: 50% Americans used personality traits such as friendly and cheap, whereas only 20% Indians used them  is the American-style sense of self a distinctlywestern idea? o Since 20% of them did use it  idea is not totally foreign o The long winded descriptions may essentially mean the same things - Still deserves attention  traits used less often than they are in western cultures o Not that they lack a sense of self Individualist and collectivist selves - study the nature of the self across cultures - individualism and collectivism - Western self is more of a separate entity, and eastern self is moreintegrated into the social and cultural context o May explain why self-expression is less in Eastern culture Self regard - individualist’s need for positive self-regard may be felt less acutely by a member of a collectivist culture - e.g. Japanese may not have to pervasive need to think wellof themselves that is so characteristic of N Americans  they tie their individual well-being to that of a larger group - students respond differently to success, failure and negative self-relevant information  Canadian college students search for ways to think well of themselves if they failed a test, Canadians deny the task/persist less if they failed on the first one Consistency - self determination - individualist view of the self assumes that the cause of behavior lies within the person  expected to behave consistently from situation to situation (consistency associated withmental health) - collectivist might be expected to change his behaviour more as a function of the particular immediate situation o less pressure to behave consistently and less conflicted about inconsistent behaviour o emotional experience varies across situations more - consistency can be conceptualized and analyzed in 2 ways: o degree to which an individual varies his behavior or experiences from one situation to the next  absolute consistency o degree to which an individual maintains his differences from other people across situations  relative consistency o e.g. brave person might be nervous in burning house thanin a normal classroom (low absolute consistency), but they stillmight be themost confident person present in both situations (high relative consistency) - Japanese had more inconsistent emotional experience in anabsolute sense (emotions changed more from one situationto the next) but they had equally consistent emotional experience in a relative sense (happier than others in one situationalso tended to be happier in another situation) o While Members of a collectivist culture may be more inconsistent in an absolute sense thanmembers of individualistic cultures, individual differences and associated personality traits appear to be equally important in both contexts The Contents of the Self - the me includes not just personality traits but our body, home, possessions and everything we hold dear - psychological self: central part of the self- our abilities, personalities o your self image and need tomaintain it modifies your behaviour and organizes your vast array of memories about yourself as well as your impressions and judgements of other people - self knowledge has two types: o declarative knowledge: facts, impressions that we consciously know and can describe o procedural knowledge: knowledge expressed through actions rather than words  e.g a shy person will avoid other people whenever possible  may not consciously realize how characteristic this behaviour is (well, theymight know unconsciously)  includes patterns of social skills, styles of relating to others that comprise the relational self and unconscious self knowledge that resides in the implicit self The Declarative Self - comprises all your conscious knowledge or opinions about your own personality traits - (1) overall opinion about whether you are good, bad, worthy, unworthy or somewhere in between  self esteem - (2) more detailed opinion that contains everything you know or think you know about your traits and abilities may be correct or not Self esteem - low SE is correlated with dissatisfaction, hopelessness, loneliness, delinquency and depression - related to suicidal rates, although also to fear of death - SE tends to suffer when you have failed in eyes of your social group  motivates you to restore reputation (evolutionary roots) - High SE means success and acceptance by one’s social group - If you say phrases that are too extreme (suppose to be uplifting), it may have a boomerang effect and make person feel worse - People who self-enhance (think they are better than they actually are) run into problems in relationships, mental health and adjustements - Overly high SE can lead to behavior that is arrogant, abusive, criminal - Narcissism is associated with high SE that is brittle because it is unrealistic o When provoked, will retaliate in offending ways - Promoting psychological health is not jus trying tomake someone feel better about themselves o Need it raise SE through legit experiences (accuracy) The self-schema - some believe that the declarative self resides in the self-schema  includes all ideas about the self, organized into a coherent system - person reaches into this memory system when asked about their personality - can be identified using S, B data or both - identified college students who were schematic for the traits of dependence and sociability by asking them to rate themselves on a series of scales o if this indicated hta thtey were extremely sociable and theyalso rated his sociability important  deemed schematic for that trait o used California psychological inventory to gather self ratings on traits of responsibility and sociability  when S data indicated exceptionally high score on responsibility  participant deemed schematic for that trait - also gathered B data through reaction times: read words such as friendly on a screen and responded by pressing me or not me  responded to relevant traits more quickly than did aschematics - implication: one’s self view (conceptualized as a schema ora trait) may have important consequences for how one processes information o being schematic for a trait makes you an expert about that trait  tends to see the world in terms dictated by their expertise, this limits their view of the world o fail to test possibilities beyond limits of expertise, fail to see beyond boundaries of own self-image - schema embodies knowledge based on past experience butnot on any particular past experience o can loose all memory and still be able to describe personality accurately o could describe herself in ways of how she had changed during the past year o man almost lost all memory of specific events of his life butstill had general knowledge of himself that agreed with others impressions of him o your self view would not change even if you lost memory ofyour past  your impressions of what you are like does not depend on memory for specific things you’ve done once its formed Self-reference and memory - another indication for the deep roots of the self is its implications for memory - if you repeat something over and over in yourmind, this rehearsal will be sufficient tomove the information into your long term memory (LTM)?  nope o not just repeat it but you have to think about it (elaboration) o the longer and more complex the processing that piece of information receives  more likely it is to get transformed intoLTM o so ask questions (do i agree, does it relate), not just read it over and over again - good way to remember is to think about how it relates to one’s self o the reason for this is that your self-schema is well used and anything that’s tied in with it can be easily retained and remains accessible o think about how information might be self-relevant o self-reference effect: the enhancement of LTM that comes from thinking of how information relates to the self  a particular area of the frontal cortexmight be specialized to process this kind of information  explains why yourmost personally meaningfulmemories stick with you the longest  might work differently in different cultures: in Chinese cultures, information thought abou tin terms of self and parents is remembered better  suggests that theself concept might contain parents, supporting the independent/dependent self-conceptmodel Self-efficacy - the conscious self schema contains our ideas about our characteristics and capabilities and it affects what we do - ~Bandura’s self efficacy. Our opinions about our capabilities set the limits on what we will attempt - Dangers in persuading people that they cannot do certain things. Media often gives implicit but powerful portrayals o E.g. certain races are not as capable, Barbie cannot domath, girls shouldn’t domath o Can have very important consequences especially for children - Dweck: Beliefs that one develops about oneself forms the basic foundations of personality o Some people have self views that lead them to anticipate being rejected by others, while other people anticipate acceptance  has consequences for how these people live their lives o “rejection theorists” go into socialrelationships expecting to be spurned and it becomes self-fulfilling o These beliefs can be changed  can change entity theorists into incremental theorists, led to improved motivation for school; changed college students’ expectations from rejection to acceptance  improve their social lives o Believes that other aspects of personality also based on changeable beliefs Possible selves - the images we have or can construct, of the other possibleways we might be - self you envision for your future may affect your life goals - Buss: women preferred mates who are older and can provide for them  this is evolutionary - Another interpretation: study which asked men/women to envision their future roles as either housemaker or provider  those who envisioned themselves as providers preferred amate who was older and could provide for them o The different mate preferences of women and menmight stem from the selves they expect to be possible in the future- which is a function of society, not necessarily from abuilt-in biological tendency - People report desiring future selves that fulfill their needs for self-esteem, competence and meaning  but they don’t want future selves to change too much - Another desired attribute for the future is continuity (maintaining the same identity) Self-discrepancy theory - you have 2 kinds of desired selves and the interactions between them and your actual self determines how you feel about life - desired selves: o ideal self: view of what you could be at your best o ought self: view of what you should be (opposed to what you would like to be) - different and probably unrealistic - discrepancies between actual self and two potential selves  consequences o fail to attain ideal self  depressed; fail to attain ought self  anxious - Higgins: these two selves represent different foci to life o Ideal: reward based, you focus on the pursuit of pleasures and rewards [Go system]  goal state of that focus, the state where you finally attain all of the rewards you seek o ought: punishment based emphasizes avoiding punishment and other bad outcomes [Stop]  represents goal state based on that focus- a state where nopunishments or other bad events will occur - everybody has both goals and nobody achieves either final state - individuals balance these goals differently o primarily pursue reward  focused on ideal self  failures to attain will depress you  root of depression is disappointment o primarily avoid punishment  focused on ought self  failure will make you anxious  root of anxie
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 2B03

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.