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PSYCH 2B03 (108)
Chapter 19


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Jennifer Ostovich

Chapter 19 Conclusion: Looking back and ahead - complete account of what people think, how they feel andwhat they do The different approaches - the filed involves study of the whole person and everything important about an individual’s psychology  so broad, cannot account for everything at once, thereforemust limit to certain perspectives - each focuses on key concerns and ignores everything else - trait: individual differences, personality traits thatmake every individual psychologically unique - biological approach: architecture and function of the nervous system and on the heritability and evolutionary history of behavioural patterns - psychoanalytic: unconscious mind, complicated effects of motivations and conflicts of which we are not even aware - humanist: moment to moment conscious awareness, the way of experiencing life one moment at a time might give us free will and the ability to choose how we see reality  leads to an appreciation of the way cultural differences create diverse construals of reality - learning and cognitive: rewards/punishments and how thatshapes behaviour  behaviour as a function of its situations o modern cognitive research emphasizes basic mental processes, relevant perception, memory, motivation, emotion, cluster of memories and attitudes called “the self” Which one is right? - they pose different questions, and none of them are trying to be right/wrong - they are useful because they account for a limited set of known facts, and they clarify important facets of human nature - its more about whether it offers a way to seek an answer toa question that you feel is worthwhile - trait: asks about individual differences , psychoanalytic: unconscious, biological: physicalmechanisms, humanist: consciousness/free will/individual and cultural construals ofreality, learning: behavioural change, processes of thinking and feeling that underlie behavioural coherence - full view of important psychological topic sometimes requires all the approaches The order of approaches - arrange in least favourite to most favourite (aha! Discovered truthin the end) - historical order: strict chronological order (if it can even be determined) is not necessarily intellectually coherent o philosophical tradition behind behaviourism is extremely old, research is comparatively new; psychoanalytic is vice versa o also gives the feel of “psychology marches on” - arrange in order that they’remost teachable o approaches branch off from each other, interact and react to each other in a way that suggests order - trait (basic issue of logically precedes of all others- does personality exist)  biological (builds off- how physiology and evolutionary histories produce broad patterns of behavior called personality traits)  do these neglect the mysterious aspects of themind?  lead to unconscious/psychoanalytic: driven by irrational and mysterious impulses  countered in an interesting way by humanistic approach: believes people consciously choose their construals of reality  learning, including modern cognitiveapproaches which draws on all other approaches  disorders (although theoretical approaches gain intellecutla coherence by enforcing boundaries on what they address, to understand the complex issues, need to violate these boundaires No single approach accounts for everything - there’s still no single fully comprehensive unifying theory that can account for everything - there are pros of having separate theories: o self-limitations helps avoid becoming overwhelmed and confused  allows each basic approach to focus on providing a thorough account of and useful knowledge about the phenomena the approach is designed to approach o existence of alternative viewpoints can keep us openminded toward phenomena that any one viewmay fail to include  intellectual competition can prevent closed minds - adherence to one basic approach can blind you to things that are perfectly obvious from other perspectives  lack of unifying approach leaves room for free thought and theorizing Choosing a basic approach - better to learn/approach them separately to get a full sense of the full scope and flavour of each - choose based on (1) what you want to understand (2) which interests you the most (3) which ones has most potential into becoming interesting work that can add to our knowledge Maintaining an awareness of alternative approaches - avoid arrogance and prevent yourself from thinking you know it all - understand proper basis for evaluating alternative approaches - have a way of dealing with the phenomenas that you mightrun into - give yourself the chance to change your mind later - at some point, itmight make sense to integrate some of the different paradigms and it would require understanding of each paradigm being integrated - increasing interest in developing OBT (one big theory) - e.g. cognitive social learning approach has close ties (historical roots) to the humanistic and behaviourist approaches. Its also being applied to nature of unconscious thoughts What have we learned? Cross-situational consistency and aggregation - people remain who they are regardless of sit
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