Textbook Notes (363,140)
Canada (158,217)
Psychology (1,309)
PSYCH 2B03 (108)
Chapter 7

chapter 7.docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

McMaster University
Judith Shedden

Psych 2B03: Theories of Personality Chapter 7: Using Personality Traits to Understand Behaviour Single-Trait Approach - Examines the link between personality and behaviour - Focused on the nature, origins, and consequences of single traits of special importance - Authoritarianism:  How civilized people could participate is such barbasism as the rise of Adolf Hitler and Nazism  Fromm theorized that the demise of the Catholicism and the rise of Protestantism in Germany, combined with the rise of capitalism, gave individuals unprecedented freedom to conceive of God as they wished an to direct their economic activity any way they chose  To avoid these frightening personal choices, some people turn their will over to an external authority, and take the comforting attitude that they are just following orders  Authoritarian character: individuals who enjoy giving orders to those below them in the hierarchy  Berkeley group of psychologist attempted to understand the difference between authoritarians and nonauthoritarians: began by constructing a questionnaire to measure anti-Semitism (A-Scale), the people who scored highest and lowest on this scale were singled out for extensive clinical interviews and other tests  Individuals who endorsed anti-Semitic statements also tended to be prejudiced against other minority groups, next step was to construct a general ethnocentrism scale (E scale)  Believed that a more general political outlook was associated with both anti-Semitism and ethnocentrism, and in an attempt to tap it they developed the politico-economic conservatism (PEC) scale  California F scale aimed to measure the basic antidemocratic psychological orientation that these researchers believed to be the common foundation of anti-Semitism, racial prejudice, and political pseudoconservatism  Genuine conservatives hold an internally consistent set of political beliefs, all of which support institutions and the traditional social order while seeking to protect individual rights, poverty, and initiative  RWA scale: updated measure of right-wing authoritarianism  Authoritarian submission: the tendency to be obedient and submissive to established leaders of the government and other important institutions  Authoritarian aggression: tendency to act with aggressive hostility toward anybody perceived as a deviant or a member of an outgroup, or anyone who is described by authorities as someone to be despised  Conventionalism: tendency to follow traditions and social norms that are endorsed by society and the people in power  Authoritarians tend to be uncooperative and inflexible when playing experimental games, and they are relatively likely to obey an authority figure’s command to harm another person, experience fewer positive emotions, and are likely to oppose equal rights for transsexuals  When society is in turmoil and basic values are threatened, authoritarians become particularly likely to support strong candidates for office  Little correlation between authoritarianism and political party affiliation  Authoritarianism is an individual-difference construct, and thus it cannot explain why Nazism arose in Germany rather than in America; instead it tries to explain which individuals within any society would be most likely to follow a leader like Hitler  Authoritarianism provides an example of how a personality trait can be helpful for understanding a complex social phenomenon - Integrity and conscientiousness:  According to one survey in which three thousand employers ranked the importance of possible employee qualities, 7 out of the top 8 involved conscientiousness, integrity, trustworthiness and similar qualities  A more specific criterion of job performance is absenteeism  The tests do less well at predicting employee theft  Personality assessment could help alleviate the effects of bias in test  In general conscientiousness might be not only a good predictor of job and school performance, but also a cause of excellence  Conscientious people live longer: avoiding risky behaviour and engaging in activities that are good for their health  People with higher conscientiousness tend to accumulate more years in school even though the trait is uncorrelated with IQ - Self-monitoring:  Relationships and discrepancies between the inner and outer selves  High self-monitors: vary in their inner and outer selves and in how they perform in different situations  Low self-monitors: others are largely the same outside as they are inside, and do not vary much from one setting to another  High self-monitors carefully survey every situation looking for cues as to the appropriate way to act, and then adjust behaviour accordingly  Low self-monitors tend to be more consistent regardless of the situation, because behaviour is guided more by their inner personality  Self-monitoring is related to the experience of emotion  Critics have factor-analyzed the scale and found that its items break into three separate factors The Many-Trait Approach - The California Q-set:  Set consists of 100 phrases printed on separate cards  Raters express judgments of personality by sorting the items into nine categories ranging from highly uncharacteristic of the person being described to highly characteristic  Distribution is forced  I data or S data  Team of researchers and clinical practitioners developed a comprehensive set of terms sufficient to describe the people they interacted with every day - Delay of gratification:  Denying oneself immediate pleasure for long-term gain seems opposed to basic human nature, yet is also necessary for many important goals  Males in our society are less prone to delay gratification than are females  The personality correlates of a behaviour measured when the children were 4 could be detected through personality assessments made one year earlier and as much as 7 years later  Many aspects of personality remain fairly consistent even throughout the rapid development and changes that occur during childhood  The correlates of delay of gratification are both similar and different between the sexes  Girls and boys show similar pattern in that those who are planful, reflective, reasonable, and not emotionally stable are likely to delay most in the experimental tests  Girls who delay the most are also intelligent competent , attentive, and resourceful – correlates missing among the boys  Boys who delay the most are also shy, quiet, compliant, and anxious – all correlates missing among the girls  In both sexes the children who delayed the longest had the highest levels of ego control  In girls ego resiliency was also related to delay - Drug abuse:  Adolescents who were already using illegal drugs by age 14 had been described when they were small children as being relatively restless and fidgety, emotionally unstable, disobedient…  Regardless of the immediate effects of peer pressure and other external influences, the adolescents most likely to use drugs suffered from other significant problems that had been visible years earlier - Depression: 
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 2B03

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.