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Chapter 10

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Judith Shedden

Psych 2B03: Theories of Personality Chapter 10: Basics of Psychoanalysis The Key Ideas of Psychoanalysis - Psychic determinism: assumption that everything that happens in a person’s mind has a specific cause, nothing is ever accidental leading to the conclusion that many mental processes are unconscious - Internal structure: mind has an internal structure made of parts that can function independently which conflict with each other  Id: irrational and emotional part of the mind  Ego: rational part of the mind, mediates between what the child wants and what is actually possible  Superego: moral part of the mind - Psychic conflict and compromise: because the mind is divided into distinct and independent parts, it can conflict with itself  Compromise formation: ego’s main job is to find middle course between competing demands of motivation, morality, practicality, and the many things a person wants at the same time - Mental energy: mind needs energy, libido, to make it go. Only a fixed an finite amount is available at any moment Psychoanalysis, Life, and Death - Two motives: one impels toward life, the other toward death - Libido (sexual/life drive): creation, protection, and enjoyment of life and with creativity, productivity, and growth existing in every person. - Thanatos (aggressive/death drive): people engage in destructive activity that does not seem rational and also everybody dies - Doctrine of opposites: everything implies, even requires, an opposite. One cannot exist without the other. Extremes on any scale may be more similar to each other than either extreme is to the middle. Psychological Development: “Follow the Money” - Each stage has three aspects: physical focus, psychological theme and an adult character type - Oral stage (birth-18 months): mouth will be the first place psychic energy is focused  Physical focus: mouth, lips and tongue. Primary feelings of pleasure are concentrated. Hands are not developed enough to be of much use for exploration.  Psychological theme: dependency. At the oral stage, the baby is all id. Child’s wants should be fulfilled but not taken overboard  Oral character: personality types resulting from extreme childhood expediency at this stage  Independent individuals who refuse help from everyone, determined to go it alone no matter what the cost  Passive individuals: wait around for their ship to come in - Anal stage (18 months-3 years old): Begins to develop ego. Increasing demands for self-control and obedience  Physical focus: child must learn to control her bowels and processes of elimination.  Psychological theme: self-control and its corollary, obedience. Ability to control urges. Child will try to figure out how much power the authority figures have to make him do their bidding, as opposed to how much he gets to decide.  Anal character: personality organized around control issues  Obsessive, compulsive, stingy, orderly, rigid, and subservient to authority  Little or no self-control, unable to do anything on time or because it is necessary, be chaotic and disorganized, and have compuls
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