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Chapter 12

Chapter 12 Psychoanalysis After Freud - Textbook Notes

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Richard B Day

Psych 2B03 Jasmyn Lee Part IV: The Hidden World of the Mind: The Psychoanalytic Approach Chapter 12: Psychoanalysis After Freud: Neo-Freudians, Object Relations and Current Research  The theme of most post Freudian psychoanalysts is to move away from his emphasis on built-in sexual and aggressive instincts, toward a focus on the interpersonal aspects of life o A special concern is the way that early attachments (especially with parents), affect perceptions of, and relations with, other people o The important insight they take from Freud is that our relationships with other people are mediated through our mental images of them, which sometimes do not resemble the way they actually are  Objects – partially accurate mental images of people  Objects Relations Theory – the modern school of psychoanalysis that deals with the origins and implications of objects  Attachment Theory – focuses specifically on how attachments to significant other people (attachment figures) and our images of such attachments can be a buffer in times of stress Interpreting Freud  Interpreting and revising a theory is divided by a fuzzy boundary Latter- Day Issues and Theorists  Most Neo-Freudian Psychologists used the same methods as Freud; saw patients, looked into themselves, read widely in history and literature, drew conclusions Common Themes of Neo-Freudian Thought  Most neo-Freudians differ from Freud in three major respects 1. View sex as less important than Freud did; place less libido as the sexual wellspring of thought and behaviour; reinterpret libido as general motivation toward life and creativity o Freud believed that those who deemphasized the psychological role of sex did so because of their own anxieties – their defenses made them unable to directly face the importance of sex and caused them to see the important bases of behaviour elsewhere 2. Less emphasis on unconscious mental processes and more emphasis on conscious thought o Modern psychologists focus on the processes driving the perception and conscious comprehension of reality o Ego Psychology – focus on perception, memory, learning and rational, conscious thinking (as opposed to sexuality, psychic conflict and the unconscious)  According to Jane Loevinger – the egos function is to make sense of everything a person experiences 3. Less emphasis on instinctual drives and mental life as the source of psychological difficulties; focuses on interpersonal relationships o Freud was uninterested in the daily lives of his patients o Adler and Erikson – psychological problems arise from day-to-day difficulties relating with other people and with society o Object relations theorists – people replay certain key relationship patterns throughout their lives Inferiority and Compensation: Adler  Alfred Adler; first major disciple of Freud to end up at odds with Freud  Adler thought Freud focused too much on sex as the ultimate motivator and organizer of thought and behaviour  Thought social interest was of equal or greater importance o Social Interest – desire to relate positively and productive with other people  Organ Inferiority – individuals are motivated to attain equality with or superiority over other people; they try to accomplish this to compensate for whatever they felt in childhood was their weakest aspect  Masculine Protest – an adults desire to be powerful, because of feeling inadequate or inferior o An expression of inferiority complex  Everyone felt inferior as a child; the quest to overcome these feelings can influence adult behaviour  An individuals compensations for perceived childhood inferiorities coalesce into a particular mode of behaviour (style of life) The Collective Unconscious, Persona, And Personality: Jung  Carl Jung; Was very close with Freud (travelled to America, numerous letters, “crown prince” etc) but had falling out  Had an increasing interest in mystical and spiritual matters; inner rhythm of the universe, transcendental experiences, collective unconscious 1 Psych 2B03 Jasmyn Lee  Collective Unconscious – as a result of history of the human species, all people share inborn “racial” (species-specific) memories and ideas, most of which reside in the unconscious  Archetypes; these basic images; believed to be the core of how people think about the world, both consciously and unconsciously o Sometimes disguised as symbols o Show up in dreams, thoughts, world mythologies, modern literature  Persona – social mask one wears in public dealings o To some degree, everyone’s personal is false; everyone keeps some aspects of their real selves private, or fails to advertise all aspects of the self equally o Individuals may come to identify more with the persona than with the real self; may become obsessed with a certain image, rather than who she really is and what she really feels – becomes shallow with no deeper purpose than social success  Anima and Animus – cause everyone to have some aspects of the opposite sex in their psychological makeup; shape responses to the opposite sex o Anima – idea, or prototype, of the female, as held in the mind of a male  The root of his “feminine side”  How a man understands a woman – can lead to idealized image of women o Animus – the idealized image of the male as held in the mind of the female  The basis of her “masculine side”  How a woman understands a man – can lead to idealized image of men  Introverts and Extraverts o Introverts – people who are psychologically turned inwards o Extraverts – people who are oriented toward the external world and other people  Four basic ways of thinking – everyone uses all four; people vary in which predominates; ideally, one would balance all 4 o Sensing – establishes what is actually present o Rational thinking – enables us to recognize the meaning of what is present o Feeling – tells us the value of what is present o Intuiting – points to possibilities as to when what is present came and where it is going in a given situation  Freud emphasized rational thinking, Jung has a more intuitive style Feminine Psychology and Basic Anxiety: Horney  Karen Horney; Never feuded with Freud  Disagreed with Freud’s portrayal of women as obsessed by “penis envy” and the desire to be male  Freud seemed to view women as men without penises, instead of whole persons in their own right  If women wanted to be men, it is due to structure of society, not structure of the body o Men were more free to pursue their own interests and ambitions  Emphasized that adult behaviour is often based on efforts to overcome the basic anxiety acquired in childhood; the fear of being alone and helpless in a hostile word  Neurotic Needs – caused by attempts to avoid such anxiety; needs that people feel but that are neither realistic nor truly desirable o Include the needs to find a life partner who will solve all of ones problems, to be loved by everyone, to dominate everyone, to be independent of everyone Psychosocial Development: Erikson  Erik Erikson; Faithful Freudian  Pointed out that not all conflicts take place in the unconscious mind – many conflicts are conscious; these conflicts can be painful and consequential  Certain basic conflicts arise at various stages of life  Psychosocial (as opposed to psychosexual) theory – emphasized not the physical focus of libido, but the conflicts experienced at each stage of life and their possible outcomes 1. First stage – basic trust vs. mistrust o Corresponds with Freud oral stage of very early childhood o Utterly dependent children learns whether needs and wants will be met, ignored or overindulged o Given the appropriate ratio of satisfaction and temporary frustration, the child develops hope and confidence that the need will be met  Hope – positive but not arrogant attitude towards life 2. Second Stage – autonomy vs. shame and doubt o Corresponds with Freud’s anal stage 2 Psych 2B03 Jasmyn Lee o Child begins to control bowels and other bodily functions, learns language and begins to receive orders from adult authority o Inevitable conflict between who is in charge arises; adults pressure child to obey, but child wants to control own life  Wills can strike a balance  Either may win out – leading in some cases to anal character (Freud) 3. Third Stage – initiative vs. guilt o Corresponds with Freud’s phallic stage o Child begins to anticipate and fantasize about life as an adult  Inevitably include sexual fantasies, as well as various tactics and plans to get ahead in life o If adults do not respond to fantasies well, these thoughts can leave the child to feel guilty and back off from taking initiative in her development toward adulthood o Ideally – child will develop a sense of right and wrong that is derived from adult teachings, but it is also true of the child’s developing sense of self - development leads to principled adult morality  Morality in which moral rules are applied with flexibility and wisdom, rather than a merely conformist pseudo morality in which rigid rules are followed blindly and without exception o Reiterates phallic stage without the full Oedipal crisis 4. Fourth Stage – industry vs. inferiority o Corresponds roughly with Freud’s latency period o One should develop skills and attitudes to succeed in the world of work or otherwise contribute to society o Child must begin to control exuberant imagination and unfocused energy and get on with tasks of developing competence, workmanship, and a way of organizing life tasks 5. Fifth Stage – identity vs. identity confusion o Deviates more widely from Freud o Adolescent strives to figure out who he is and what is and is not important o Individuals choose values and goals that are consistent, personally meaningful, and useful 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation o Find an intimate life partner to share important experiences and further development, rather than becoming isolated and lonely 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation o As a person’s position in life becomes firmly set, does she settle into passive comfort, or begin to turn her concerns to the next generation? 8. Integrity vs. Despair o Occurs in old age as one beings to face the prospect of death o Does the person regret earlier mistakes or has the person developed wisdom throughout life experiences?  Life Span Development – development is not limited to children; it is an ongoing task and opportunity throughout life Object Relations Theory: Klein & Winnicott  Melanie Klien and D.W. Winnicott  Objects – emotionally important people  Objects Relations Theory – analysis of interpersonal relationships o We can only related to other people via the images of them we hold in our minds, and these images do not always match reality – mismatch causes problems  Core goes back to Freud – superego was built from childhood identifications with important people; people repeat important psychological patterns in new relationships through the mechanism of transference  Four Principle Themes 1. Observation that every relationship has elements of satisfaction and frustration, or pleasure and pain o Eg/ baby and the breast; breast provides nutrients, warmth and comfort, yet it is not always available or full 2. The mix of love and hate; important people are sources of both pleasure and frustration 3. The distinction between the parts of the love object and the whole person o Eg/ to a baby, mother IS the breast; this is what attracts and interests the baby, not the mother as a person o Using a persons attributes for ones own enjoyment is not the same as loving the person 4. The psyche of the individual is aware of and disturbed by these contradictory feelings o Eg/ baby loves the breast, but baby feels anger (never enough), envy (desires breasts power for self), fear (breast may be taken away), and guilt (if breast is harmed, may be lost)  Klein; child therapy used to communicate with and diagnose children through play o Provide a range of toys and observe which ones the child plays with and how o Play allows the symbolic expression of emotions such as hate, anger, lover and fear 3 Psych 2B03 Jasmyn Lee o From watching child play pretend about parents – children divide/split their important love objects into two parts (one good, one bad)  Good part of the object pleases them  Depressive Position – wish to worship and protect the good part because they fear losing it  Bad part of the object frustrates them  Paranoid Position – wish to destroy bad part because they fear being destroyed by it  People are indivisible wholes; cannot split them in
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