Textbook Notes (363,103)
Canada (158,195)
Psychology (1,303)
PSYCH 2B03 (108)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Textbook Notes

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McMaster University
Richard B Day

Chapter 4 Notes – The Measurement of Individual Differences - Trait theorists base work on scientific individual measurements of sociability, reliability, dominance, nervousness, cheerfulness, etc. - The trait approach based on o Empirical research, correlational designs o Focuses exclusively on individual differences  Extent of trait in one individual compared to another, ratios The Measurement of Individual Differences - Properties of people differ but in a way that allows these individuals to be grouped (eg. cheerful person stands out from group of gloomers)  only important point o All men are “like some other men” o Allows the assessment of individual difference using broad categories People are Inconsistent - Numerous exceptions despite dominant characteristics o Eg. shy with strangers but warm open and friendly with family members - Situations do not play a big role in personality o Do traits actually exist?  Answer dependent on age and stage in life (personality consistency variance)  More consistent = less neurotic, more controlled, more mature, and more positive in their relations with others The Person-Situation Debate Person-Situation Debate: Which is more important for determining what people do, the person or the situation? 1. Limit to predicting what a person will do based on any measurement of personality 2. Situations are more important than personality traits in determining behaviour 3. Personality assessments are a waste of time (issue of consistent personality) - Resolution: recognizing that persons and situations do not compete for which one determines behaviour more o Interact to produce behaviour together Predictability  Arguments from Personality Psychologists 1. Unfair Literature Review  Michel’s literature was selective, short, and biased  Rebuttal: paper was short so had to be selective 2. 0.40 Upper Limit: how well personality traits can predict behaviour and how consistent behaviour is from one situation to another
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