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PSYCH 2E03 (32)
Chapter 1

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Gautam Ullal

Psych 2E03: Sensory & Perception Chapter 1 The Perceptual Process - perception of the world around you is only a small part of what is happening as you perceive - perceptual process: a sequence of steps leading from the environment to perception of a stimulus, recognition of the stimulus, and action with regard to the stimulus  environmental stimuli and attended stimuli:  environmental stimulus is all of the things in our environment that we can potentially perceive  attended stimulus is making a stimulus the center of our attention. It changes from moment to moment as attention shifts  stimulus on receptors:  transformation of the stimulus into another form  transduction:  transformation of one form of energy into another form of energy – energy in the environment to electrical energy  neural processing:  operations that change the electrical responses of neurons in various ways  the ways the pathways of the nervous system are laid out and the nature of the interconnections between the various pathways can affect the flow of electrical signals  perception:  flow of signals creates perception  perception is conscious sensory experience  electrical signals transformed into experience  recognition:  behaviour that is an outcome of perceptual processes  ability to place an object in a category  agnosia: the inability to recognize objects  action:  behaviour that is an outcome of perceptual processes  includes motor activities  perception is a continuously changing process  knowledge:  information that the perceiver brings to a situation  ex.: the rat-man demonstration, ability to categorize objects  bottom-up processing: based on incoming data and is essential for perception  top-down processing: based on knowledge How to approach the study of perception - goal of perceptual research is to understand each step in the perceptual process that lead to perception, recognition, and action - levels of analysis:  psychophysical level of analysis: focuses on the stimulus- perception relationship, ex.: experiment in which experimenter asks an observer to decide whether two very similar patches of color are the same or different  physiological level of analysis: focuses on the stimulus-physiology relationship and the physiology-perception relationship, ex.: electrical activity generated by neuron’s in a cat’s cortex is measured in response to the presentation of different coloure
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