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Chapter 5

chapter 5- short-term memory and working memory.docx

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McMaster University
Judith Shedden

Psych 2H03: Human Learning and Cognition Chapter 5: Short-Term Memory and Working Memory Learning: the permanent change in behaviour that results from experience. Memory: the mental operations that store information as well as recover and retrieve it at appropriate times. Short-term memory (STM): memory that contains our moment-to-moment conscious thoughts and perceptions; its contents endure only as long as we are paying attention to them. Working Memory (WM): the set of mechanisms that underlies short-term memory and communicates with long-term memory; a semipermanent memory store that endures for a lifetime and aids in learning new information. Retroactive interference: hindrance that occurs when new information makes it difficult to remember previously learned information. Proactive interference: inference that occurs when previously learned information inhibits the ability to remember new information. Rehearsal: paying attention to items in short-term memory. Maintenance rehearsal: saying something repeatedly to keep it in mind. This sort of rote learning keeps items in short-term memory, but does not guarantee permanent ability to recall them. Elaborative rehearsal: thinking about meaningful relationships among items to be learned and focusing on how they connect to other things you know. This type of strategy often results in long-term recall and recognition of the items learned. Serial exhaustive search: examining every item in short-term memory in its entirety and continuing to search even after the item has been found. Serial position effect: the probability of recalling items at the beginning and end of a list is higher than the probability of recalling items in the middle of a list. Primacy effect: better recall of the first items of a list. Recency effect: better recall of the last items of a list. Negative recency: a tendency to recall items from the beginning of list (because they have been rehearsed) better than items from the end of a list. Modality effect: the different recall pattern of list items when they are visually or auditorily presented. Phonological loop: a subsystem in working memory dedicated to the temporary storage of sound-based information and representations. Phonological store: a component of the phonological loop that acts as a reservoir to store acoustic representations of a stimulus. Articulatory control process: a component of the phonological loop that automatically refreshes and maintains the elements in the phonological store as if they were being rehearsed through a subvocal process. Visuospatial sketchpad: a component of working memory responsible for storing visually presented information, such as drawings, or remembering kinaesthetic (motor) movements, such as dance steps. Visual cache: a component of the visuospatial sketchpad that temporarily stores visual information from perceptual experience and contains colour, form, and some spatial information of what is perceived. Inner scribe: a component of the visuospatial sketchpad that performs at least two functions. First, it refreshes all the information in the visuospatial sketchpad; and second, it briefly stores spatial relationships associated with bodily movements. Episodic buffer: a component of working memory that acts an an integrative system that places events occurring in the visuospatial sketchpad and the phonological loop into a coherent sequence, along with the memory of the goals that initiated those events. Central Executive: a component of working memory that coordinates the activities of the visuospatial sketchpad, phonological loop, and episodic buffer; it also communicates with long-term memory via the episodic buffer. It is not a memory st
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