Psych 2H03: Human Learning and Cognition
Chapter 6: Long-Term Memory
Long-term memory (LTM): the aspect of memory that consists of all the
knowledge and experience acquired throughout life.
Explicit memory: all information that we consciously seek to store and retrieve,
such as personal history and general knowledge.
Declarative memory: memory that can be described to others if you are asked to
Semantic memory: the aspect of long-term memory that retains conceptual
knowledge stored as an independent knowledge base containing discrete facts (e.g.,
dogs bark and birds lay eggs).
Episodic memory: the portion of long-term memory that stores and connects
specific times, places, and events in a person’s life, an is therefore autobiographical
Retrospective memory: an aspect of episodic memory that allows a person to
travel back mentally in time to retrieve a fact, or to relive an experience (e.g.,
remembering the first time you drove a car, or what you wore to the senior prom).
Prospective memory: an aspect of episodic memory that allows a person to travel
forward mentally in time (e.g. remembering to keep a dental appointment next
Implicit memory: a semiautonomous memory system that frees up cognitive
resources so that you can concentrate on more demanding tasks; it allows you to
put important mental functions that can be performed automatically in the
Procedural memory: stored knowledge that allows the skilful performance of tasks
even though individual parts of the task cannot be recalled or explained to others
(e.g., typing or tying your shoelaces).
Perceptual memory: awareness of physically based patterns that are difficult to
describe, but are effortlessly recalled (e.g., the scent of roses, the taste of liquorice,
or the sights and sounds of your childhood neighbourhood).
Permastore: the phenomenon that once facts are stored in long-term memory they
endure for nearly a lifetime.
Semantic features: word meanings stored as collections of meaning elements (e.g.,
the mental representation of woman is composed of human, female, and adult). Feeling of knowing: the inability to recall something that you believe is stored