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Chapter 12

chapter 12- reasoning.docx

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Judith Shedden

Psych 2H03: Human Learning and Cognition Chapter 12: Reasoning Reasoning: the process by which conclusions are drawn from information (premises); a crucial skill that sets humanity apart from all other animals. Counterfactual reasoning: reasoning from assumptions or hypotheses that the reasoned believes to be false (e.g., “If I had studied for the test, I would have gotten a good grade.”). Validity: conclusions that logically follow a premise. Invalidity: a property of conclusions that do not follow a premise. Linear reasoning: the ability to draw a conclusion from pairs of relationships on some dimension (e.g., height). Seriation: the basic linear reasoning: the ability to place objects in order along a dimension (e.g., from shortest to tallest). Transitivity: given three items, if a relation holds between the first two items and also between the second and third items, then it must hold between the first and third items. Syllogism: an argument in which the conclusion follows from the premises. Marked terms: a word that is noted or “marked” because it is difficult to understand as a result of its specificity or complexity (e.g., lioness is more complicated that lion because it specifies a subset of a larger group). Unmarked terms: a semantically simple word to understand. Principle of lexical marking: a semantically complicated term that is difficult to reason with and to store in memory. Principle of congruity: the mental steps that must be used to answer a question: encoding the question, comparing the encoded question with encoded facts stored in memory, and if the encoding of the question and facts match, answer the question. Set-inclusion relation: he inferred relationship among categories of objects. Deduction: reaso
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