Textbook Notes (362,730)
Canada (158,028)
Psychology (1,303)
PSYCH 2NF3 (39)
Chapter 1

2NF3 Chapter 1.docx

13 Pages
Unlock Document

McMaster University
Andrew Wade

Neuropsychology 03/06/2014 Chapter 1 : The development of neuropsychology L.D case- poor scores on tests of memory and attentionexecutive functioning Brain hypothesis: idea that the brain is the source of behaviour Neuron hypothesis: unit of brain structure is the neuron or nerve cell Brain hypothesis What is the brain? CSF- cerebrospinal fluid- basic plan of brain- tube filled with salty fluid Cushions brain and may play a role in removing metabolic wastes Cerebral cortex- brains thin outer layer folds (bumps)=gyri creases=sulci (fissures if they are large=longitudinal fissure lateral fissures- divides each hemi into halves hemi divided by corpus callosum constitutes most of the forebrain (develops from front part of tube) remaining tube is called the brain stem and then this is connected to the spinal cord forebrain mediates cognitive functions higher level function brainstem mediates regulatory functions (eating, drinking, moving) low level spinal cord- sends commands to muscles Low level How is the brain related to the rest of the nervous system? CNS connected to rest of body through nerve fibers some fibers carry info away from CNS and others bring info to it▯PNS CNS after damage does not regulate lost tissue PNS will regrow after damage Sensory pathways carry info collected on one side of the body mainly to the cortex in the opposite hemi by means of a subdivision of the PNS called somatic nervous system (SNS)▯ brain uses this info to construct its current images of the world, its memories of past events and its expectations about the future Motor pathways- groups of nerve fibers that connect the brain and spinal cord to the body’s muscles through the SNS- cortex that prod movement mainly use motor pathways to muscles on opposite sides of body Automatic nervous system (ANS)- influences muscles of internal organs ie. Beating of heart or contractions of stomach Nervous system▯ CNS- Brain                      ­spinal cord PNS- Somatic nervous system -Automatic Brain vs heart Alcmaeon of Croton- located mental processes in BRAIN Empedocles of Acragas- located in HEART Aristotle : the mind Psyche (indep of body, but worked through heart) was responsible for human thought, perception and emotion and processes like imagination, opinion, desire, pleasure, pain, memory and reason “mentalism” (of the mind) persons mind is resp for behaviour Descartes: mind –body problem Described as non-material and without spatial extent, the mind was diff from body Body –similar to machine Mind- decided what movements the machine should make Pineal body- action of mind his idea was that the mind, working through the pineal body, controlled valves that allowed CSF to flow from ventricles through nerves to muscles, filling them and making them move pineal body now pineal gland- controls biorhythms dualism- mind body separate but interact monists- avoid mind-body problem by postulating they are a whole Darwin and materialism th Materialism- (mid 19 C) rational behaviour can be fully explained by the working of the nervous system without any need to refer to a nonmaterial mind Alfred Wallace and Darwin All living things have common decent- Darwin Experimental approaches to brain function Localization of function Diff parts of brain have diff functions proposed by Gall and Spurzheim They proposed that the cortex and its gyri were functioning parts of the brain and not just coverings for the pineal body Suggested cortex sends instructions to the spinal cord to command movement of the muscles Also proposed that it produces behaviour through the control of other parts of the brain and spinal cord through the corticospinal tract Also recog that 2 hemi are connected by the corpus callosum that allows them to interact Localization of function- control of each kind of behv by a specific brain area Phrenology – study of the relation between the skulls surface features and a persons faculties Localization and lateralization of language Broca located speech in the third convolution (gyrus) of the frontal lobe on left side Lateralization- functions could be localized to a side of the brain Brocas area- left frontal lobe region taking part in language production Brocas aphasia- expressive or non-fluent, aphasia that is chiefly a defect of speech Sequential programming and disconnection Cases where aphasic patients had lesions in this auditory projection area that differed from those described by broca in 4 ways (Wernickes area) 1- damage was evident in first temporal gyrus 2- no opposite-side paralysis 3- patients could speak fluently, but what was said was confused and made little sense 4- although the patients were able to hear, they could neither understand nor repeat what was said to them Wernicke’s syndrome sometimes called temporal-lobe aphasia OR fluent aphasia in Wernicke’s area, sounds are processed into auditory images or ideas of objects and stored from Wernicke area, auditory ideas can be sent through a pathway called arcuate fasciculus leading to brocas area where rep of speech movement are stored. Then from brocas area, neural instructions are then sent to muscles that control movements of the mouth brocas- loss of speech movement without loss of sound images- no loss of understanding conduction aphasia- (cutting the arcuate fibers connecting broca and Wernicke’s) type of fluent aphasia (Wernicke’s area), despite alleged normal comprehension of spoken language, words are repeated incorrectly alexia- loss of ability to read disconnection between visual area and Wernicke’s area apraxia- inability to make sequences of movements disconnection of motor areas from sensory areas loss and recovery of function flourens and animal models brainstem and breathing removal of cortex from dogs- did not eliminate any function completely, just reduced function to some extent hierarchical organization and distributed systems in the brain hierarchical organization- info is processed serially with each level of processing assumed to rep the elaboration of some hypothetical process hughlings-jackson- described nervous system as having levels spinal cord brainstem forebrain damage affecting highest levels of the brain would prod dissolution, reverse of evolution behaviors would just be simpler, more typical of that of an animal that has not yet evolved the missing brain structure THE BINDING PROBLEM H.M could require motor skills but could not remember having done so. He could remember faces but not recall emotional experiences Binding problem- although the brain analyzes sensory events through multiple,, parallel channels that do not converge on a single brain region, we perceive a unified rep of our experiences.
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 2NF3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.