Textbook Notes (367,930)
Canada (161,511)
Psychology (1,468)
PSYCH 2TT3 (15)
Chapter 5

Lecture 7 (Chapter 5 - March 4) - PSYCH 2TT3
Premium

6 Pages
59 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 2TT3
Professor
Brett Beston
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYCH 2TT3 2013 Lecture 7 Chapter 5 – Cultural Transmission Social Learning - Overview  The anecdotes – studies done in mid 1900s (not necessarily controlled); before these observations, animals thought to be incapable of social behaviour and social learning  Non-imitative social learning; local enhancement and social facilitation  Cultural transmission  Imitation  Teaching  Brain size  Social Learning vs. Individual Learning o Social learning can be much faster – avoid the trail and error learning o Across generations, avoids the loss of information in the death of an individual o A rare insight can spread rapidly through the population Probable Social Learning – The Anecdotes  Imo the monkey (Japanese macaque) was the first individual who washed potatoes to remove sand – other monkeys started to do the same later o Imo solved a problem – others saw solution to problem and copied behaviour o Evidence for social learning (may not be a strong case for social learning)  The rate of increase in behaviour was low (not exponential like expected in social learning)  Some monkeys are not washing – not washing rate stable  Learning to wash not exponential  Human bias – macaques would not naturally be playing with sweet potatoes on the beach (humans placed the potatoes there)  Playing with objects in water isn’t novel – potatoes may just be another object brought into the water  Stone play in Japanese macaque – stacking up then knocking down stones; 3-year old Glance started (1979) o Spread of the stone play over 29 years o Only monkeys younger than Glance observed playing o Orange = verified players o Dashed lines = Glance o Individuals older than Glance did not have much stone play; younger than Glance had increased stone play o Younger individuals – more impressionable  Milk-Bottle opening by blue tits o Thick layer of cream at top layer of milk bottle – birds want to get at it o Bottles were initially delivered with no cap – caps added to prevent birds from getting to milk; birds learned to remove cap o The behaviour was first observed in England in the 1920’s and spread rapidly among blue tits o Some kind of social learning was probably involved because of the rapid spread o Increase in behaviour in blue tits; robin had low rate of bottle opening  difference probably due to social structure; robins are territorial, opposite sex only come together during breeding season; blue tits are very social, constantly interacting 1 PSYCH 2TT3 2013  Weakness – not controlled experiments; but inspire experiments Types of Social Learning  Social learning – a system of info transfer that affects an individuals behaviour based on what they previously observed  Local Enhancement – an observer may learn something just from being drawn to a model (there is no real learning from the model) o Benefit – most often, an observer joins a model who is probably at a location rich in food (and safe) o Drawn to location to where model is found in o Eg/ Sticklebacks – model fish have been put in certain areas; typically spend most time near vegetation; location of food and away from predators  Sandy vs. gravelly environment; blue = model present; green = alone  Will spend more time in foreign environment if a model is present o Old exploitation in hunting o Application in Conservation – attract endangered birds to a restored or protected habitat  Social Facilitation – the mere presence of the model enhances learning in the observer o Already in a group; working, traveling, foraging in a group  there is an advantage; don’t have to be as vigilant for predators, can spend more time learning  Contagion – not social learning on its own, but in combination with individual learning, can facilitate social learning o Eg/ Geese foraging together; one bird quacks and flies, the rest fly – observation of flight response; birds may not know why other bird is flying, but first bird may have seen a predator etc (knows something the others do not) o Spreads rapidly in a group Imitation in Non-Human Animals  Have to learn some sort of newbehaviour that has to do with spatial manipulation; sequence of events are followed to a T; not merely accomplishment of goal – it’s the process of attaining the goal  Mirror neurons – respond to specific neural pattern of events by observing behaviour of another individual  Anthropomorphism – the attribution of human traits to non-human animals  Most early reports on imitation in non-human species were incorrect  Imitation in chimps and children o Task – open a Plexiglas box to get fruit; two solutions (press a button that releases lever OR twist knobs to release lever) o Demonstration –  Half the subjects observed a demonstrator poking 2 plastic rods then lifting the lid  Other half of subjects observed the demonstrator twisting clockwise and puling the plastic rods and then lifting the lids o Two distinct techniques to control for non-imitative alternatives – local enhancement – the observer play with the box because the demonstrator does so  want to insure imitation o Prediction – observers would employ the technique observed to open the box o Observer behaviour – coders rated observer behaviour on a 0-7 scale  Majority of individuals who saw a twist – twisted; individuals who saw poke – poked 2 PSYCH 2TT3 2013  Percent Twists o Critical data indicating that an observer learns a new behaviour by watching a demonstrator exist for very few species o Local enhancement is prevalent  Imitation = observational learning o An observer learns a new behaviour by watching a demonstrator o Neither the presence of a demonstrator nor some outcome of the behaviour are sufficient – actions undertaken are important Culture in non-human animals  Culture – a suit of local traditions that uniquely identifies a certain population  Tradition – a distinctive behavioural pattern shared by two or more individuals in a social unit, which persists over time and that new practitioners acquire in part through socially aided learning  Eg/ Grooming hand-clasp in 2 chimpanzee groups – varies depending on population  A tool set for harvesting termites in Goualougo, Congo o Ch
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 2TT3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit