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PSYCH 3CC3 (30)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3- The Psychology of Police Investigations.docx

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Richard B Day

Psych 3CC3: Forensic Psychology Chapter 3: The Psychology of Police Investigations The Consequences of Falsely Confessing - If the confession is admitted in court, jury convicts the suspect for a crime they did not commit  Jurors likely to convict a suspect based on confession evidence even when aware that confession resulted from coercive interrogation  Kassin and Sukel (1997): participants presented with confession obtained in high-pressure condition recognized that the confession was involuntary, but the presence of a confession increased the conviction rate in low-pressure AND high-pressure conditions - Also consequences for police and public  Police investigation diverted by false confession Criminal Profiling - Technique for identifying the major personality and behavioural characteristics of an individual based upon an analysis of the crimes he or she has committed - Used in homicide and rape cases - Most applicable in cases in which extreme psychopathology are exhibited - Help set traps to flush out an offender - Determine whether a threatening note should be taken seriously - Give advice on how best to interrogate suspect - Tell prosecutors how to break down defendants in cross-examination - Common characteristics predicted: age, sex, race, intelligence, education, hobbies, family background, residential location, criminal history, employment, psychosexual development, post-offence behaviour The Origins of Criminal Profiling - Early attempts at criminal profiling: Whitechapel murders, New York City’s mad bomber - Development of a criminal profiling program at the FBI (1970s) - RCMP:  VICLAS  Linkage blindness refers to an inability on the part of the police to link geographically dispersed serial crimes committed by the same offender because of a lack of communication among police agencies How is Criminal Profiling Constructed? - Little is known about profiling process - WHAT + WHY = WHO  WHAT: material that profilers collect at the start of an investigation  WHY: motivation for the crime and each crime scene behaviour  WHO: actual profile that is eventually constructed once WHAT and WHY have been determined  Does not tell us how profiler gets from WHAT/WHY to WHO - Profiling is still viewed as an art, not a science - Based on experience and intuition Different Types of Profiling Methods - Deductive criminal profiling involves the prediction of an offender’s background characteristics generated from a thorough analysis of the evidence left at the crime scenes by that particular offender  Underlying logic of the argument can be faulty - Inductive profiling: involves the prediction of an offender’s background characteristics generated from a comparison of that particular offender’s crime with similar crimes committed by other, known offenders  Sampling issues - Organi
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