Textbook Notes (369,074)
Canada (162,369)
Psychology (1,468)
PSYCH 3M03 (10)
Chapter 3


69 Pages

Course Code
Denys Decatanzaro

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Ch 1class 2September1112931 AMPut yourself in shoes of primitive peopleOnly view is from their ancestorsPrescientific ideas were subjective Great deal of mythologies built up from info passed down by word of mouth or books What you find in every culture that the prevailing ideas were ANIMISTICwe have spirits in our bodiesPeople saw themselves as spirit in the bodynot a scientific idea bc we have zero evidence about it but that idea lingers in our culture and in other cultures It was also seen that death was the spirit leaving body but no scientific evidence at allFor a long time abnormal behaviour was attributed to possession of evil spiritslaugh at it but idea still lingers in manytraditions When ppl didnt attribute people essence to spirit they were often attributed to the wrong parts of physiology People often thought thatthought and emotion was in the heart and it still lingers in the modern languageBut you know that if there is any intense emotion their are changes in the heart that people attributed to the heart in the past but isnt the caseisnt scientific but these ancient traditions lingerie Can be h ard hearted if you dont care about others If we dont attribute it to heart we attribute it to other parts of your body ie Butterflies in the tip of your stomach and you actually feel it So emotions are tied to physiological events we know the wiring of them now but before we never knew thatThese reflexes are very real but have to do with the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systemie With face changes colour or tingly feeling this is due to nervous system and blood moving quickly or slowly increasing sympathetic or parasympathetic activityppl thought they were spirits moving in their body they misattributed them Face You can sayemotions are written all over your face ad they areAnd your emotions remotivate other people as well have an influence on other ppl ie Family and friends and even parentingbtwn mother and infantieyou light p my life Im in a dark moodtheir are many expressionsit is true though that you tend to be happier in bright light most ppl like the sunAnd we didnt understand that until recently and its actually the function of the pineal gland in the brain Animals get depressed like ppl ie Their heads are lowered etc Same as ppl Various PhilosophersThomas Hobbes Human nature is base inherently barbaric warlike and ignorant John Locke Tabula rasa idea that we are all born without instinct and that experience alone shapes who we areJeanJacques RousseauHumans in their natural state are selfish peaceful and untroublednoble savage Greed violence and anxiety are the product of civilization Didnt go into the others Dualismmind and body separateSoul inhabiting body ghost in the machineHe is trying to reconcile religious ideas and scientific ideas as wellPSYCH3M03 Page 1 Tried to conserve the idea of the soul in the body This idea is no longer valid with modern psychology and NS Essentially now it is scene that the body is a machineThere is voluntary behaviour and cognitive control too Another way in which modern science differs from philosophy and religion is that often individuals were viewed as definitive ie Freud said this or Darwin said this so they are right and lets not question them There is no definitive authority and invoking authority does not provide convincing evidence in science No infallibility WE TEST AND CHALLENGE EVERYTHING THAT IS NOT FERMLY ESTABLISHEDLets turn to modern ScienceHe will go through all topics now in the course and give us data and be confidentScientific MethodWe try to be objective it is the idea thatif he shows us the data then we will be convinced it is simply a consensusWe have to discard our preconceptions because everybody comes from different area and have different experiencesRebuild knowledge with systematic observation and we do so on the basis ofEmpiricismEmpiricism means that we rely on our senses not our abstract ideas but our data Use only data from direct sensory observations not from subjective experienceThe key for the understanding is that if ppl get involved in research they have to have the ideas in their brain as they define their study and methods Operational definition define in terms of concrete observationsso if you give the recipe to someone else they will find the same thing as youHow to define anxietyIt is an abstract concept First thing you need to do when working in research and a lab is to simplify a big concept and define itall reflexes are autonomic eventstheir are also chemical events and behavioural events ie Avoidanceall these events can be measuredWe can also use verbalizationAll of this involves measurement and quantificationSampling and statistical analysis be careful how you sample Experimentation do experimentdo systematic observationsless formal you observe what naturally occurs ie Looking at ppl in war fairsso their are limits in what can be done in a laboratory Publication Sceptical evaluationlook at these publications these other works sceptically critic them and look over and challenge them and question and it works becuase it gives us a greater understanding of stuff There is no unquestionable stuffYou end up getting consensus Replicate and see what you get REMEMBER THIS STUFF FOR THE ASSIGNMENT Assignment will ask us to look over the scientific literature and critic its validity and their tools for doing that and all of them are abovethe scientific method listEarly scientific influencesPhysiologywe are just another animalspecies Evolutionstill getting understood todaygeneticsits growingExperimental psychologyhas been around since early 20th century and has been providing the highest best methods in understanding humansPSYCH3M03 Page 2 Experimental psychologyhas been around since early 20th century and has been providing the highest best methods in understanding humans Darwint he expression of emotions in man and animals PSYCH3M03 Page 3
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