Textbook Notes (369,074)
Canada (162,369)
Psychology (1,468)
PSYCH 3UU3 (13)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2

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Karin R Humphreys

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Psych 3UU3 Chapter 2: Describing Language Sentences: a group of words that express a complete thought How to describe speech sounds Acoustics: the study of the physical properties of sound • Sound spectrogram: shows the amount of energy present in a sound when frequency is plotted against time Formants: peaks of energy at particular frequencies • Formant structure is an important characteristic of speech sounds • All vowels and some consonants have formants We can describe speech at two levels: 1. Phonetics: describes the acoustic detail of speech sounds and how they are articulated 2. Phonology: describes the sound categories each language uses to divide up the space of possible sounds Aspirated: a sound that is produced with an audible breath Unaspirated: a sound that is produced without an audible breath Phoneme: is a basic unit of sound in a particular language Allophone: phonetic variants of phonemes i.e., one aspirated, one unaspirated 3 types of phonetics: Articulatory: emphasizes how sounds are made Auditory or perceptual: emphasizes how sounds are perceived Acoustic: emphasizes the sound waveform and physical properties Minimal pairs: two words that differ by just one sound ie. Dog, cog. Different systems of pronunciation within a language are called dialects. We produce sounds by moving parts of the vocal tract and voicebox or larynx. There are two major types of sounds: Vowels: made by modifying the shape of the vocal tract, which remains more or less open while the sound is being produced. The position of the tongue modifies the range of harmonics produced by the larynx. Consonants: are made by closing or restricting some art of the vocal tract at the beginning or end of a vowel. • Place of restriction (area where vocal tract is closed) can be analysed to examine the relation between sounds • Distinctive features: features needed to describe sounds Diphthong: the combination of two vowel sounds ie. My, cow, go, boy *Pronunciation amongst consonants relatively the same over dialects but vowels are not Place of articulation: the part of the vocal tract that is closed or constricted during articulation Voicing: consonants produced with vibration of the vocal cords Unvoiced: a sound that is produced without vibration Voice Onset Time: the time between the release of the constriction of the airstream when we produce a consonant, and when the vocal cords start to vibrate Glottal stop: a sound produced by closing and opening the glottis (the opening between vocal folds) Manner of articulation: the way in which the airstream is constricted when speaking IPA(international phonetic alphabet) provides a notation and way of classifying them Higher-level structure of sounds Syllables: a rhythmic unit of speech that can be analysed for onset and rhyme • Monosyllabic: one syllable • Rime: the end part of a word that produce
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