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PSYCH 3UU3 (13)
Chapter 13

Chapter 1 3uu3.docx

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Karin R Humphreys

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Psych 3UU3 Chapter 1: The Study of Language Eight functions of language: • To communicate • To express emotion • For social interaction • To make use of its sounds (ie. Children’s games) • To attempt to control the environment • To record facts • To think with • To express identity Understanding language is important for understanding human behaviour. Psycholinguistics: the study of the psychological process involved in language. • Study understanding, producing, and remembering language and are concerned with speaking, writing, and memory for language. They are also interested in how we acquire language and the way in which it interacts with other psychological systems. Language: a system of symbols and rules that enable us to communicate (though a formal definition is a waste of time due to all the ambiguities) Semantics: the study of meaning Syntax: the study of word order Morphology: the study of words and word formation • Inflection morphology: concerned with changes to a word that do not alter its underlying meaning or syntactic category (i.e. pluralisation and verb tenses) o Regular forms (follow rules) o Irregular forms do not • Derivational morphology: changes to a word that do alter its underlying meaning or syntactic category Pragmatics: the study of language use Phonetics: the study of raw sounds Phonology: the study of how sounds are used within a language Word: the smallest unit of grammar that can stand alone Lexicon: mental dictionary—all the information that we know about a word Indo-European language descent: Romance (French, Italian, Spanish) Germanic (German, English, Dutch) Indian (Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu) Psycholinguistics evolved officially in 1959 though previous dates show works of it. Evolved from: • Information theory: emphasized the role of probability and redundancy in language, and developed out of the demands of the fledging telecommunications industry • Behaviourism: emphasized the relation between an input (stimulus) and output (response) and how conditioning and reinforcement formed these associations Cognitive science approach: Eliza and Shrdlu programs • Primitive syntactic processing abilities • Eliza used templates for sentence recognition (people consulted with her about problems) • Shrdlu was dedicated to extraction of limited semantic information necessary to move around “blocksworld” Connectionism: involve many simple, richly interconnected neuron-like unites working together without an explicit governing plan—rules and behaviour emerge from the interactions between these many simple units—knowledge comes from learning statistical regularities rather than explicitly presented rules Activation: continuously varying quantity—the amount of energy possessed by something—the more highly activated something is, the more likely it is to be output Priming: if two things are similar to each other and involved in pr
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