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Chapter 3

PSYCH 1X03 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Classical Conditioning, Homeostasis, Ophidiophobia


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1X03
Professor
Joe Kim
Chapter
3

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conscious learning
ex. humans only needs to touch a hot stove once to learn to avoid red glowing elements to prevent
pain & injury
types of unconscious learning: classical conditioning (allows us to associate 2 related events),
instrumental conditioning (allows us to associate actions & consequences)
unconscious/reflexive learning
Two Types of Learning
Nicole gets chronic headaches when it rains & takes meds which have side effects of nausea & vomiting
Case Study:
salivation is first stage of digestion which begins in the mouth when food is first ingested
following training, dog would start salivating to the sound of a metronome alone (w/o food)
new behaviour --> conditional reflex
sound of a metronome signaled to a dog that food would be delivered to the dog
ex. lighting before thunder
studying a contingent relationship (one stimulus reliably predicts presentation of another)
Classical Conditioning
classical conditioning in humans: imagining eating food makes our mouths salivate prematurely
ex. antelopes flee to cues (sound, smell, etc.) associated w/ predators
learning contingencies can be critical for avoiding predators
Classical Conditioning: the learning of a contingency b/w a particular signal & a later event that are paired in time
and/or space
Components of Classical Conditioning
Unconditional Stimulus (US): any stimulus/event that occurs naturally, prior to learning (ex. food in dog's mouth)
Unconditional Response (UR): the response that occurs after the unconditioned stimulus; occurs naturally, prior to
any learning (ex. salivation in dog's mouth)
typically appears before unconditional stimulus
Conditional Stimulus (CS): paired w/ the unconditioned stimulus to produce a learned contingency (ex. sound of
metronome & placing food in dog's mouth)
Conditioned Response (CR): the response that occurs once the contingency b/w the CS and the US has been
learned (ex. sound of metronome will lead to conditioned response of salivation)
Acquisition: the process by which a contingency b/w a CS & US is learned
rats avoid unfamiliar foods (neophobia)
rats eat small quantities of food at a time
they can pinpoint the specific food that cause their illness & never eat it again
Some contingencies can be acquired in a single trial (ex. rats)
Extinction
as long as the conditional stimulus continues to be a reliable cue for the unconditional stimulus
How long does a contingency last?
done by presenting the CS alone repeatedly, without the US w/ which it have be previously paired
over several trials, CR will be weaker & weaker
Extinction: the loss of the CR when the CS no longer predicts the US
Classical Conditioning
September 15, 2017
2:42 PM
Module Notes Page 1
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