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Chapter 3

PSYCH 1X03 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Classical Conditioning, Drug Tolerance, Analgesic

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Joe Kim

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Chapter 3: Learning
Decreased eectiveness of a drug over a course of repeated
important role in development and maintenance of drug tolerance
Classical and Pavlovian conditioning
Theories of drug tolerance have been based on drug administration and
physiological eects on the sensitivity of receptors
Decreased sensitivity occurs due to systemic changes
oincreased frequency of use
oblockage of receptor access
Founded on the principles of classical conditioning
Environmental context of drug administration is vital in the development of
drug tolerance and the mechanisms of drug overdose
Every episode of drug administration = conditioning trial
Stimulation by drug = unconditional stimulus
Counteraction = unconditional response
Environment becomes associated with counteraction after repeated trials
Body is prepared to compensate for drug eects by being in that particular
 
oBuilding tolerance then testing eects with a 
oWhen rats received a placebo in the environment of administration,
hyper analgesic eects occurred
oPain increased, environment elicited compensatory responses
 
 present when a drug is administered become
associated with the drug eect
 enduring change in mechanisms of behaviour due to experience
Consists of 3 main concepts
"# !$
oWhen learning occurs, something changes in the processes and
systems that produce behaviour
oTwo reasons to consider more than behaviour alone
oAllows for distinction between learning and performance
oMany reasons why behaviour might change that are unrelated to
Fatigue and motivational factors can alter behaviour
oLearning may occur but not be immediately re+ected in performance
oeects of learned behaviour not yet re+ected in
%# &'(
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oMechanisms of behaviour that occur from learning must be 
oChanges do not have to be permanent, but learning should be retained
over time whether it is continually expressed in behaviour
)# *$+
oOccurs due to +
oSome changes re+ect learning, other are largely a result of
,of experience
John Locke and the empiricist philosophers
oWe learn about the world by creating between ideas
through experience
 'focuses on the ability to make associations between
various stimuli
 & focuses on associations between our actions
and the consequences
 -automatic shift of attention toward that stimulus or
Produced by changes in environment that we can perceive
Focuses attention to unfamiliar stimuli, which may signal sudden
danger/unexpected opportunity
 Important to distinguish between stimuli we need to pay attention to and
stimuli we can ignore
 /simple form of learning, decrease in response to a stimulus or
event as it is repeatedly presented without consequence
Allows you to ignore irrelevant stimuli that may be distracting and divert your
Process of habituation needs to be limited; or there may be an ever-
increasing range of stimuli being permanently ignored
 increase in responding that follows a change in stimulus to
which habituation has occurred
 0 heightened responsiveness, due to repeated exposures in
order to respond suitably to stimuli that may be of direct threat
Sensitization and dishabituation = 
 (1+kind of process aected by habituation or sensitization
Independent of conscious control
Study of re+ex regulation of the digestive glands
Salivation was triggered when food was placed in the mouth
Food stimuli at a distance from the animal could elicit salivary secretions
Salivation in the dogs were triggered by mental experience, rather than a
physical stimulus
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