PSYCH 1XX3 Chapter Notes -Narcissistic Personality Disorder, Spatial Frequency, Behaviorism

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1) developmental psychology - Maria Salman is done
2) evolutionary psychology pg 27-50 Pakeezah
evolutionary psych 50-67 Shivani (inclusive fitness, parent offspring conflict and concluding
thoughts)
3) neuroscience Saba
4) sensory systems pg 98-118 Ritchie
4) sensory systems 119-134 Supriya
5) sensory systems pg 135-145 - peter
6)psychological disorders - Harleen
7) psychological treatment -nadia (start -pg211) + zehra (211 to end)
Chapter 1
Developmental Psychology
This branch of psychology is concerned with the entire lifespan of human beings. However,
much of the research encountered is childhood development only because so many
enormous and fundamental changes are concentrated in this period of our lives.
Research methods with the long view
Developmental psychologists may rely on the experimental method less so because of the
complexity of development so controlling for extraneous variables is incredibly difficult and
maybe even impossible as well as the fact that developmental change may be because of
the simultaneous action of a large number of variables.
The quasi-experiment is a more commonly used research method in developmental
psychology. This method deals with the fact that we frequently cannot manipulate variables
like age or gender so what we can do is group subjects based on their existing level of that
variable. But by doing this we are randomly assigning subjects to conditions and we cant
really do the same cause and effect. Instead, what we can do is correlational techniques or
simply taking the world as we find it rather than try and manipulate variables.
There are two basic questions that can be asked about development:
Descriptive or normative research asks questions about how things normally change from
age to age.
Analytic research asks about the processes and variables that are responsible for the
changes in abilities and needs from age to age.
In both cases, the passage of time is an important variable.
One of the research designs we can use is longitudinal design which is where we compare
development ar different ages by following the same group of people across time, this is
like a within subjects design. The good thing about this study is that we eliminate
extraneous variables but it is time consuming and costly. There is also practice effect and
cohort effect where your are reflecting your cohort not universal.
Physiological Development
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At conception sperm and egg fuse
Genetic Transmission:
The human genome consists of 30,000 or so genes – a complete set of which is present in
every cell in our bodies.
The link between genotypes and phenotypes is indirect because genes do not directly
determine observable traits but it is more like each gene controlling the production of a
particular protein or enzyme that in turn regulates a biochemical sequence within the
developing organism determining the traits that get expressed.
Genes guide the biochemical processes that lead to observable traits, but so do many other
factors . Some traits are more genetically heritable than others but no characteristic is
entirely determined by genes.
The cascade gene model suggests that the SRY gene is only one gene amongst many
interacting genes that produce the sex of the individual and that both male and female
factors contribute.
Additional factors also contribute to a human’s sex phenotype for example in androgen
insensitivity syndrome males may appear outwardly female but have male reproductive
organs.
Prenatal Development
Once we make a zygote it is undergoing rapid cell division
Less than half of all fertilized eggs survive beyond the first two weeks of conception
Ten days after conception, the zygote attaches to the uterine wall and its now an embryo
The embryo is made up fo undifferentiated stem cells that will soon begin to differentiate
After 6 weeks of gestation we have gonads that aren’t sexually differentiated yet.
A week later testes make androgens and ovarian developmental factors make estrogens.
After two months we have a one inch fetus
By 7 months we have a 16 inch fetus that can reflex, cry, breathe, and swallow
Postnatal Development
Motor Development à Infancy and Childhood
Human infants don’t have many motor skills
Rooting reflex à close in on whatever mouth finds and will suck.
Majority of individuals develop according to orderly sequence of genetically
determined biological growth processes known as maturation
As infants mature more complex motor skills develop and purposeless behaviours
may be abandoned
Babies stop grabbing at 3-4 months of age
Voluntarily grasp at 5 months and can grasp with thumbs and forefingers at 12
months.
Sequence of most motor skills is universal
Babies roll before they can sit unsupported, and crawl on all fours before they
can walk.
90% of babies can walk by the time they are 15 months old.
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Once gross motor movements are mastered, baby can now focus on more fine
motor skills.
By age 2, a toddler can pull, push and dump objects.
He can also pull of hats and socks, turn pages, scribble, stack, feed, toss or roll a
ball, open cabinets, and walk backwards.
By 3 and 4 we have developed most of the skills toss and catch, walk in a
straightline…..
By age 5 we can hop and jump, use a fork, dress, somersault…etc.
By middle childhood most children are as coordinates as adults and continue to
work on ther most important task: physical growth
Physiological Development in Adolescence
Adolescence begins with the onset of puberty à the period of sexual maturation during
which a person can become capable of reproduction
Puberty marks the second major hormonally driven set of physical changes in the human
body ---first being in utero
Puberty starts from signal of hypothalamus to pituitary gland.
Pituitary gland releases gonadotrophic hormones
Gonadotrophic hormones influence reproduction by stimulating dramatic growth and
maturation of the reproductive organs and external genitalia
In males onset of puberty is marked by increase in testosterone, enlargement of testes and
penis, lengthening of vocal cords, body hair, and the ability to ejaculate.
In females estrogen is released by the ovaries and stimulates the growth of breasts,
widening of hips, growth of pubic and underarm hair, and beginning of menstruation
Physiological Development in Middle Adulthood
Physical abilities peak in mid twenties and then decline
Decline that happens in reaction time, muscular strength, and cardiac output is more
gradual.
Aging leads to a decline in fertility because of decrease in the production of sex hormones.
Females have this decline more where pregnancy changes decrease at 35 and menopause
at around 50
Men experience a gradual decline in sperm count, speed of ejaculation, and erection
strength
Libido decreases with age because of decrease of testosterone
Physiological Development in Older Adulthood
Many physical abilities decline à the amount and intensity of physical activity that can be
tolerated, fighting off life threatening diseases, immunosenescence (decline in immune
function).
Age related bad stuff can be fought off with moderate exercise à it can increase immune
function, protect from chronic diseases, and reaction speed while driving, and then decrease
general chances of mortality.
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