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Chapter 10

PSYCH 2B03 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Anal Stage, Oral Stage, Libido

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Jennifer Ostovich

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Chapter 10: Basics of psychoanalysis
Psychic Determinism
- determinism: the idea that everything that happens has a cause (in principle) that can be identified
- psychic determinism: assumption that everything that happens in a person’s mind, and therefore everything that a person
thinks and does, also has a specific cause
o no miracles, free will, random accidents there must be a reason, and it lies somewhere in the structure/dynamics
of personality (lies in hidden part of the mind)
- many important mental processes are unconscious
Internal Structure
- the mind has an internal structure made of parts that can function independently and which, in some cases, conflict with each
- brain vs. mind: brain is the organ, mind is the psychological result of what the brain and the rest of the body do
- mind divided into (1) id: irrational, emotional (2) ego: rational (3) superego: moral
- mind includes separate and independent structures that can process different thoughts and motivations at the same time
(though not necessarily divided neatly into 3)
Psychic Conflict & compromise
- stems from the assumption that the mind is divided. But instead of one over the other, make compromises
- Compromise formation: ego’s main job is to find a middle course between the competing demands of motivation, morality
and practicality result of compromise is what individual consciously thinks and does
Mental Energy
- Psychological apparatus of the mind needs energy to make it go psychic energy/libido (only a fixed amount is available at a
given moment)
- Freud: Energy available for doing one thing is unavailable for another (conservation of E)
- Some implications that have been refuted: fighting back after steam build up when you are angry doesn’t release the energy,
it makes you more angry
- It is the mind’s capacity for processing information, rather than it’s energy that is limited
- One of the goals of psychoanalysis is to free up more psychic energy/computing capacity for the challenges of daily life by
removing neurotic conflicts one by one
- one of the most controversial theories
- people complained that it was unscientific, dirty, complained about Freud’s ethics, manners, personal life
- both psychoanalysts and humanists begin the psychological endeavour with the attempt to know themselves
- libido: sexual drive (creation, protection and enjoyment of life and with creativitiy, productivity and growth) exists in every
person (drive towards life)
- thanatos: drive towards death
- doctrine of opposites: everything implies, even requires, its opposite: life requires death, happiness requires sadness etc. (the
extremes are more similar to each other than each to whatever is in the middle)
- psychological development is the story of how life energy/libido becomes invested and then redirected over an individual’s
early years
- 3 aspects to each stage:
o Physical focus: energy is concentrated and gratification is obtained
o Psychological theme: related both to the physical focus and to the demands on the child from the outside world
during development
o Adult character type: associated with being fixated in that particular stage, rather than fully developing toward the
next one
- If fail to resolve the psychological issues of each stage problems
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