PSYCH 2B03 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Anal Stage, Oral Stage, Libido

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Chapter 10: Basics of psychoanalysis
FOUR KEY IDEAS:
Psychic Determinism
- determinism: the idea that everything that happens has a cause (in principle) that can be identified
- psychic determinism: assumption that everything that happens in a person’s mind, and therefore everything that a person
thinks and does, also has a specific cause
o no miracles, free will, random accidents there must be a reason, and it lies somewhere in the structure/dynamics
of personality (lies in hidden part of the mind)
- many important mental processes are unconscious
Internal Structure
- the mind has an internal structure made of parts that can function independently and which, in some cases, conflict with each
other
- brain vs. mind: brain is the organ, mind is the psychological result of what the brain and the rest of the body do
- mind divided into (1) id: irrational, emotional (2) ego: rational (3) superego: moral
- mind includes separate and independent structures that can process different thoughts and motivations at the same time
(though not necessarily divided neatly into 3)
Psychic Conflict & compromise
- stems from the assumption that the mind is divided. But instead of one over the other, make compromises
- Compromise formation: ego’s main job is to find a middle course between the competing demands of motivation, morality
and practicality result of compromise is what individual consciously thinks and does
Mental Energy
- Psychological apparatus of the mind needs energy to make it go psychic energy/libido (only a fixed amount is available at a
given moment)
- Freud: Energy available for doing one thing is unavailable for another (conservation of E)
- Some implications that have been refuted: fighting back after steam build up when you are angry doesn’t release the energy,
it makes you more angry
- It is the mind’s capacity for processing information, rather than it’s energy that is limited
- One of the goals of psychoanalysis is to free up more psychic energy/computing capacity for the challenges of daily life by
removing neurotic conflicts one by one
CONTROVERSY:
- one of the most controversial theories
- people complained that it was unscientific, dirty, complained about Freud’s ethics, manners, personal life
- both psychoanalysts and humanists begin the psychological endeavour with the attempt to know themselves
PSYCHOANALYSIS, LIFE AND DEATH:
- libido: sexual drive (creation, protection and enjoyment of life and with creativitiy, productivity and growth) exists in every
person (drive towards life)
- thanatos: drive towards death
- doctrine of opposites: everything implies, even requires, its opposite: life requires death, happiness requires sadness etc. (the
extremes are more similar to each other than each to whatever is in the middle)
PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT
- psychological development is the story of how life energy/libido becomes invested and then redirected over an individual’s
early years
- 3 aspects to each stage:
o Physical focus: energy is concentrated and gratification is obtained
o Psychological theme: related both to the physical focus and to the demands on the child from the outside world
during development
o Adult character type: associated with being fixated in that particular stage, rather than fully developing toward the
next one
- If fail to resolve the psychological issues of each stage problems
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Document Summary

Mind divided into (1) id: irrational, emotional (2) ego: rational (3) superego: moral. Mind includes separate and independent structures that can process different thoughts and motivations at the same time (though not necessarily divided neatly into 3) Psychic conflict & compromise stems from the assumption that the mind is divided. But instead of one over the other, make compromises. Compromise formation: ego"s main job is to find a middle course between the competing demands of motivation, morality and practicality result of compromise is what individual consciously thinks and does. Psychological apparatus of the mind needs energy to make it go psychic energy/libido (only a fixed amount is available at a given moment) Freud: energy available for doing one thing is unavailable for another (conservation of e) Some implications that have been refuted: fighting back after steam build up when you are angry doesn"t release the energy, it makes you more angry.

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