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Chapter 12

PSYCH 2B03 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Myers–Briggs Type Indicator, Melanie Klein, Anima Animus


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2B03
Professor
Jennifer Ostovich
Chapter
12

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CHAPTER 11: PSYCHOANALYSIS AFTER FREUD
- Most move away from Freud’s emphasis on build in sexual and aggressive instincts focus on interpersonal aspects of life
- Special concern about early attachments [attachment theory]- how attachment to attachment figures can buffer in times of
stress
- Insight from Freud: relationships mediated through mental images
o Objects: partially accurate mental images of people [object relations theory]
INTERPRETING FREUD
- Interpreting vs. revising
- Need to interpret theory in ways that will sound reasonable today
- Many people have integrated their own ideas/perspectives/interpretations when describing Freud the more you do, the
more close you are to developing another theory
LATTER-DAY ISSUES AND THEORIESTS
Common themes of neo-freudian thought
- 3 common differences
o View sex as less important interpret libido as general motivation toward life and creativity( as opposed to just
sexual wellspring of thought and behaviour)
Freud said that it’s because of anxiety that they deny the role of sex
o Less emphasis on unconscious mental processes and more on conscious thought
Ego psychology: focus on perception, memory, learning, rational, conscious thinking (over sexuality,
psychic conflict, unconsciousness)
Lovinger: development = development of ego, ego’s function is to make sense of everything a person
experiences from understanding how individual is separate from the world and from the mother, how
to related to society (few become independent people who appreciate and support the independence of
others)
o Less emphasis on instinctual drives and mental life as the source of psychological difficulties focus on
interpersonal relationships
Look into the day to day relationships and how problems may arise from difficulties in encounters or how
these key relationship patterns replay
Inferiority and compensation: Adler
- First major disciple to end up at odds with Freud, thought he focused too much on sex as ultimate motivator and organizer
- Social interest: desire to relate positively and productively with other people
- Organ inferiority: individuals are motivated to attain equality with or superiority over other people in order to compensate
for whatever they felt in childhood was their weakest aspect
o E.g. someone who felt physically weak as a child strive for physical strength
- Masculine protest: compensation for the past; desire to act and become powerful because of feeling inadequate or inferior
o Particular acute for men: feel that men are supposed to be the more powerful gender, yet growing up, mom was
the dominant figure compensate/secure masculinity by choice of vehicle, manner of driving (superficial)
- The quest to overcome inferiority as a child can influence adult behaviour (style of life)
- Terms that root in Adlerian thoughts: Inferiority complex, lifestyle
The collective unconscious, persona, and personality: Jung
- Jung had an increasing interest in mystical and spiritual matters
- Collective unconsciousness: as a result of human history, all people share inborn racial memories and ideas, most of which
reside in unconscious
- Archetypes: basic images
o The core of how people think about the world (conscious + unconscious)
o The hero, devil, supreme being shows up in dreams, thoughts, mythologies etc.
- Persona: social mask one wears in public dealings
o Person fails to advertise all aspects of the self equally, keeps certain aspects private can be dangerous as
individual comes to identify more with persona > self
- Anima: idea/prototype held in the mind of a male (his feminine side understands women through his lens of anima
- Animus: idealized image of the male held in the mind of a female (her masculine side)
o Concepts shapes responses to the opposite sex can cause problems if they match poorly
- Introverts vs. extroverts
- Classification of 4 basic ways of thinking
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o Rational thinking: recognize meaning
o Feeling: tell the value
o Sensing: what is actually present
o Intuiting: points to possibilities as to whence it came/whither it is going in a given situation
o We use all of them, but to a different extent (e.g. engineer may emphasize rational thinking, artist emphasize
feeling) Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) used to determine which kind of thinking an individual uses the
most
o Best to achieve a balance, though rare
- Freud: rational, Jung: intuitive
Feminine psychology and basic anxiety: Horney
- Never feuded with Freud, influential in history of psychoanalysis
- Self-analysis
- Disagreed with Freud’s portrayal of women: women wish to be men probably because they see men as being more free
than women to pursue their own interests and ambitions (not because of penis envy)
o Women may lack confidence/overemphasize love relationships as source of fulfillment due to society structure
- Along lines with Freud: adult behavior based on efforts to overcome basic anxiety acquired in childhood neurotic needs
o Needs that people feel but are neither realistic nor truly desirable
o E.g. need to be loved by everyone, independent of everyone etc.
o Mind tries to pursue them even though they may be contradictory may lead to self-defeating
behaviour/relationships problem
Psychosocial development: Erikson
- Important revisionist of Freud
- Not all conflicts take place in unconscious many conflicts are conscious (e.g. choose between careers, lovers)
- Psychosocial (vs. psychosexual) theory of development
o Basic conflicts arise at different stages of life instead of physical focus on libido, Erikson looked at the conflicts
at each stage and their possible outcomes
o Covers development throughout life
- Stages of development:
o Basic trust vs. mistrust: (~oral stage) child learns whether needs/wants will be met/overindulged/ignored
satisfaction and frustration develops hope (positive, not arrogant attitude towards life) and confidence that
basic needs will be met
o Autonomy vs. shame and doubt: (~anal) conflict arises- who is in charge, wants to control own life but needs to
obey in some cases will lead to anal character
o Initiative vs. guilt: (phallic)child begins to anticipate/fantasize about life as an adult
adults need to respond properly, if not child will feel guilty and back off from taking initiative in her
development towards adulthood
child will development principled adult morality: moral rules applied with flexibility and wisdom
*reinterpreted Freud w/o full Oedipal crisis in the phallic stage
o Industry vs. inferiority: (~latency) develops skills and attitudes to succeed in world of work/contribute to society
Control imaginations and unfocused E to get on with tasks of developing competence, workmanship etc.
o Identity vs. identity confusion: adolescent strives to figure out who he is and what is and is not important
Freud’s theory stops with genital stage (some time after puberty), Erikson thinks development continues
through lifetime
Individuals choose goals that are meaningful, useful, consistent
o intimacy vs. isolation: (end identity conflict, young adulthood) find intimate life partner to share experiences and
further in development
o Generativity vs. stagnation (middle age): should avoid temptation to just stop, but to raise and nurture next
generation to ensure progress
Retirees who vote against taxes to support schools, yuppies who don’t have children stagnation
o Integrity vs. despair: (old age) face prospect of death, regret earlier mistakes? Developed wisdom? Does person
have anything of value/interest to the next generation?
- People progress according to developmental tasks that different phases of life require because of society’s structure (not
according to physical/genital maturation)
- 2 major contributions by Erikson: (1) societal basis of psychological development- as described above (2) life-span
development
o Development is not limited to children, ongoing task and opportunity throughout life huge influence on modern
psychology
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