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Chapter 2

PSYCH 2B03 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Projective Test, Thematic Apperception Test, Schizophrenia


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2B03
Professor
Richard B Day
Chapter
2

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PSYCH 2B03 CHAPTER 2 - CLUES TO PERSONALITY: THE BASIC SOURCES OF DATA
INTRO
- how to look at an individual's personality:
1. (S data) ask the person directly for her own opinion about what they are like
2. (I data) ask other people who know the person
3. (L data) check on how the person is managing in life
4. (B data) observe what the person does and try to measure their behavior
- when you try to learn about or measure personality, you cannot rely on just one kind of
information
- Funder's Second Law: there are no perfect indicators of personality; there are only clues, and
clues are always ambiguous
DATA ARE CLUES
- observable aspects of personality are best characterized as clues
- you must infer both the existence and nature of personality
- inferences about personality must be based on indications that can be observed
- Funder's Third Law: something beats nothing, two times out of three
- it is better to have clues about someone's personality that will not be useful than to not have
them at all
FOUR KINDS OF CLUES
- S data: self-reports
- person tells the psychologist the degree to which they are dominant, friendly, or
conscientious
- the way people describe themselves usually matches the way they are described by others
- the most common basis for personality assessment
- advantages:
- large amount of information
- access to thoughts, feelings and intentions
- some S data are true by definition
- causal force
- simple and easy
- disadvantages:
- maybe they can't tell you
- maybe they won't tell you
- too simple and too easy
- I data: informants' reports
- judgments by knowledgeable informants about general attributes of the individual's
personality
- advantages:
- large amount of information
- real-world basis
- common sense
- some I data are true by definition
- causal force
- disadvantages:
- limited behavioral information
- lack of private experience
- error
- bias
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