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Chapter 3

PSYCH 2C03 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: List Of Austin Powers Characters, Culture Of Asia, Representativeness Heuristic


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2C03
Professor
Jennifer Ostovich
Chapter
3

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Automatic thinking - quick / effortless / unconscious / involuntary / unintentional
Controlled thinking - effortful / deliberate / conscious
On Automatic Pilot : Low Effort Thinking
Schemas - mental structures people use to organise their knowledge about the social world that
influence the information people notice, think about and remember
People as Everyday Theorists: Automatic Thinking with Schemas
Not being able to form schemas can be disorienting and perpetually confusing because
everything you meet is new (can't relate past experiences to new experiences)
Lawyer is more likely to argue whereas construction worker is more likely to be
physically aggressive
Fill in the blanks with information / ideas that are schema consistent
Resolve ambiguity
The Function of Schemas: Why Do We Have Them?
Someone suffering from depression is likely to attribute certain behaviours in
others as a sign of depression because that is their experience with the behaviour
Chronically - constantly active and ready to be applied
Studying for an abnormal psychology test and the subjects include depression
(more likely to apply your knowledge to a behaviour because that is what you
recently applied your focus to)
Related to current goals
Accessibility - The extent to which schemas are at the forefront of the mind and are therefore
likely to be used when making social judgments
Priming only works if the information is accessible and applicable
If you recently memorised positive descriptors of an extrovert, you will make a positive
judgement when extroverted behaviours are presented in an ambiguous manner
Can operate outside of conscious awareness (flash words too quickly to read)
Priming - The process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of a schema, trait
or concept
Which Schemas Are Applied? Accessibility and Priming
Ex. Holding something warm when first meeting someone makes them seem
warmer
Body sensations activate a schema which influences our judgement about something
unrelated without being aware of the influence of the body on the mind
Embodied Cognition - The process by which sensations activate mental structures such as
schemas
Embodied Cognition: Physical Sensations Can Prime Cognitive Schemas
Children labelled as higher in IQ or more likely to be bloomers to their teachers did
significantly better then their peers on and IQ test a year later
Inadvertently, the teacher had given the bloomers a better environment in which to
succeed
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy - expectations about another person cause them to act a certain way
around that person and in turn, that person is caused to act consistently with those expectations
Making our Schemas Come True: The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
Every culture will breed different schemas from its people
Cultural Determinants of Schemas
Judgmental Heuristic - Mental shortcuts people use to make judgments quickly and efficiently
Mental Strategies and Shortcuts: Heuristics
When asked to remember a list of names the ones that are more familiar are more likely
to be remembered (famous v. non famous)
Can allow Dr. to diagnose patients with the first disorder that comes to mind that has the
symptoms being described which can lead to misdiagnoses. On the other hand it can
allow physicians to see an answer to a problem if they are met with the symptoms of a
Availability Heuristic - mental shortcut whereby people base a judgement on the ease with
which they can bring information to mind
How Easily Does it Come to Mind? Availability Heuristic
Social Cognition
December 4, 2016
5:49 PM
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