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Chapter 2

PSYCH 2E03 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Cranial Nerves, Lateral Sulcus, Upper Set

Course Code
Nikol Piskuric

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Chapter 2
Historical Ways of Understanding the Brain
-Phrenology: rst theory of cerebral localizaon
oVarious mental facules were believe to occupy discrete parts of the brain’s surface that
produced bumps and depressions in the skull
oFranz Joseph Gall: try to link bump and depressions in skulls to personalies
-Phineas Gage (clinical case): railroad worker, a steel rod punctured his head, made a full
recovery and got back to work aer several months
oEvidence against localizaon: brain funcons must be distributed equally throughout the
brain or else he would not be able to funcon properly
Modern Views of Func%onal Specializa%on
-Localiza%on: the brain is funconally subdivided into areas, regions or modules that are
specialized for certain types of funcon
oImaging techniques: fMRI, etc.
-Parallelism: presence of mulple pathways within a given sensory system that transmit and
process di&erent features of a complex smulus relavely independently
-Lateraliza%on: the brain allocates many funcons across 2 hemispheres
oEx. Visual
oEach hemisphere is “specialized” for certain funcons (mood, emoon)
The Sensory System is the A+erent Division of the Peripheral Nervous System
-Central nervous system: brain, spinal cord
-Peripheral nervous system: everything else
-Internal environment:
glucose levels, etc.
-Somac: Voluntary
-Visceral (autonomic):
-Anything in between =
interneurons connecng

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Flow of Sensory Informa%on
-Sensory neurons generally clumped
-Secondary a&erent neurons: relay
-Neurons in primary sensory cortex:
passes informaon on to other
areas in the brain
-Where cells are located varies
-Peripheral branch: extends towards
the PNS
How Do Receptor Cells “Sense” Environmental Signals?
-These cells have proteins on their plasma membrane that respond to environmental cues
-A. When their ligand is found, binds to closed ion channels causing them to open and allowing
ions to 4ow through
The First Step in Sensory Processing is Sensory Transduc%on
-All sensaon begins by the process of transducon
-Transduc%on: conversion of external energy → electrical signal
(receptor poten%al)
oAlways mediated by opening/closing ion channels
The Receptor Poten%al Creates a Change in the Membrane Poten%al of the Sensory Receptor
-Receptor potenal: rst biological response to an outside smulus
oEx: touch, smulus: pressure on skin, Response: deformaon of stretch-gated receptor
causes movement of ions across the membrane of the sensory neuron
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