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Chapter 20

PSYCH 2H03 Chapter Notes - Chapter 20: Echoic Memory, Clive Wearing, Iconic Memory


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2H03
Professor
Ellen Maclellan
Chapter
20

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Intro to Memory Acquisition
- Case of Clive Wearing
o Was an accomplished musician but then got brain damage as a result of viral
encephalitis (herpes) has amnesia
o Still able to play music, but can’t form new memories
o Now only has a moment-to-moment consciousness
o No memory at all of what he was doing just seconds ago
Acquisition, storing and retrieval
- Acquisition happens before a memory can take place
o The process of gaining info and placing it into memory
- Once info is acquired, you need to hold it in memory until info is needed (storage)
- Memory / remembering = the last stage (retrieval)
- What counts as ‘good learning’ to acquire new info depends on how the memory is to be
used later on
o Claims about acquisition therefore are interconnected with claims about retrieval
(can’t separate either stage from the next fully)
The route into memory
- Early ideas about memory in cognitive psych focused on processes of acquisition
- Waugh and Norman (1965) = one early proposal
- Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) later refinements to the early model
o The ‘modal model’
Updating the modal model
- What the model says:
o when info first arrives, it is stored briefly in sensory memory
Memory that holds input in raw sensory form
Iconic memory for visual inputs, echoic memory for auditory inputs
o Selection / interpretation moves info into short term memory
o Some info is hen transferred into long term (permanent storage)
- Need to update the model:
o Lessening emphasis on sensory memory: doesn’t play a big role
o Need to replace term ‘short term memory’ with ‘working memory’ to emphasize
its function
Ideas in this memory are currently activated / being thought about so
they’re ideas you’re currently working on
o LTM: contains knowledge / beliefs you aren’t usually currently thinking about
- Not thinking of working memory as a ‘place’; instead, it is a status
o Ideas are currently activated and being worked on by a specific set of operations
- How working memory and LTM differ:
o WM is limited in size: LTM is huge
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