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Chapter 10

PSYCH 2H03 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Phrase Structure Rules, Vocal Folds, Parsing


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2H03
Professor
Karin R Humphreys
Chapter
10

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Sunday, March 20, 2016
Chapter 10: Language
The Organization of Language
-Ideas are typically expressed in sentences–coherent sequences of words that express the
intended meaning of a speaker.
-Sentences are composed of phrases, which are in turn composed of words.
-Words are composed of morphemes, the smallest language units that carry meaning.
-In spoken language, morphemes are conveyed by sounds called phonemes, the smalles unit of
sound that can serve to distinguish words in language.
-Within each of these levels, people can combine and recombine the units to produce novel
utterances.
Phonology - The Production of Speech
-Within the larynx there are two flaps of muscular tissue called the “vocal folds”.
-The vocal folds can be rapidly opened and closed, producing a buzzing sort of vibration
known as voicing.
-Categorizing speech sounds:
1. We can distinguish sounds according to how the airflow is restricted–manner of
production.
-The airflow can be fully stopped for a moment (i.e., for the [t] and [b] sounds)
-Air passage can be restricted, but air continues to flow (i.e., for the [f] and[z] sounds).
2. We can distinguish between sounds that are voiced–produced with the vocal folds vibrating–
and those that are not.
3. Sounds can be categorized according to where the airflow is restricted–place of articulation.
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Sunday, March 20, 2016
-You close you lips to produce bilabial sounds like [p] and [b].
-You place your top teeth close to your bottom lip to produce labiodental sounds like [f]
an [v].
-You place your tongue just behind you upper teeth the produce alveolar sounds like [t]
and [d].
-In English, these features of sound production are combined and recombined to produce 40 or
so different phonemes.
-Speech segmentation: A stream of speech is “sliced” into its constituent words and, within
words, into the constituent phonemes.
-Coarticulation: The way a sound is produced is altered slightly by the immediately preceding
and immediately following sounds.
-Because of this overlap in speech production, the acoustic properties of each speech
sound vary according to the context in which that sound occurs.
-Phonemic restoration effect: A pattern in which people “hear” phonemes that actually are not
presented but that are highly likely in that context.
-Categorical perception: The fact that people are much better at hearing the differences
between categories of sounds than they are at hearing the variations within a category of
sounds.
-What listeners seem to hear is either a [pa] or a [ba], with no gradations inside of either
category.
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