Chapter 7 – Social Influence & Persuasion
Manipulative Influence: The attempt is hidden from the target.
Open Influence: Attempt is readily apparent to target. The target understands that
someone is trying to change his or her attitudes or behavior. 1) the use of persuasive
communication to change the target`s attitudes or beliefs (information about the target) 2)
the use of threats or promises to gain compliance (punishments and rewards) 3) the use of
orders based on legitimate authority to gain compliance.
Source (expertise, trustworthiness, attractiveness) –> Message (discrepancy, fear appeal, 1-
sided or 2-sided) -> Target (intelligence, involvement, forewarned) -> Effect (change
attitude, reject, counter argue, suspend judgement, derogate source).
Communicator Credibility: the communicator is perceived by the target as a believable
source of information.
Effect of Multiple Sources: Social Impact Theory: A target will be more influenced when the
sources are strong, when sources are physically close, and when the sources are numerous.
A message presented by several different sources is more persuasive than the same
message presented by a single source. Must be independent from one another.
Discrepant Message: One advocating a position that is different from what the target
believes. To change a belief and attitude, a message must be at least somewhat discrepant
(differing) from the targets current position, otherwise it would just rea