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Chapter 9

Social Work In canada Ch.9 ,168-181.docx

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Social Work
Stephanie Ross

Chapter 9: Social Work and the Health of Canadians Medicare at Risk - Social workers are part of interdisciplinary team that provide unique holistic perspective to health care o Promotion of wellness, and the consideration of the social, economic, spiritual, and cultural needs of the health services client Health and Inequality - There is a serious health gap in Canada: The well-educated are healthier than the less educated, the employed are healthier than the unemployed etc. Household Spending on Health - Immigrants and visible minorities are at greater disadvantage when it comes to health care. - Aboriginals: lowest quintile of the Canadians socio-economic hierarchy, have the poorest levels of overall health - See table 9.1 page 169 History of Health Policy - Universal Public Health Care o Publicly funded health care that is available to all who meet requirements of eligibility - Before 1940, health care was based on payment - Did not become a concern for the govt. until illness threatened to hamper the supply of worker for industry. - First Nations: had healers and shamans instead of doctors - 1824 - The first Canadian Medical school was founded - 1869 – legislation gave allopathic practitioners control over medical education - Women were excluded from medical schools - The British North America Act of 1867 o Establish jurisdictions of the federal and provincial governments in delivering health services o Larger tax base of the federal govt. allowed it to exert a strong influence on Canadian health delivery, as it continues to do today. - Pre-payment Health Plans o Plans sponsored by local govts. Industries, and volunteer agencies from the 1800 to the 1950s o Voluntary insurance plans did not cover all medical expenses and were available only to those who could afford to pay premiums o 1934 – there were 27 hospital-sponsored pre-payment plans in 6 provinces o 1939 – First Canadian Blue Cross plan was formed in Manitoba - 1942 Heagerty Report and 1943 Marsh Report o Recommended comprehensive state-funded health insurance - 1943 Marsh Report o Detailed the need for comprehensive and universal programs o ‘social minimum’ – a standard aimed at protecting the disadvantaged through policies such as social insurance and children’s allowances o ‘most important single document in the history of the Welfare State in Canada’ – University of Toronto historian Michael Bliss Federal Involvement - 1942 Heagarty Report o Wide agreement including the support of the labour movement and the Canadian Medical Association o plan foundered because of federal-provincial disagreements - 1945 Royal Commission on Dominion Provincial Relations o Produced a series of proposals and called for the federal government to hel finance health and social services program in return for the provinces’ renouncement of their claim to income and corporate taxes - End of WWII o Children’s allowances and unemployment insurance were in place - 1947 - first public insurance plan for hospitals were introduced in Saskatchewan - 1957 Hospital Insurance and Diagnostic Services Act o Federal govt. agreed to finance 50% of the cost of provincial acute and chronic hospital care o Patients still had to pay a daily user fee for hospital services - 1961 – All provinces and territories had signed agreements with the federal govt. for limited, in- patient hospital care that qualified for federal cost sharing. - 1964 Hall Report o 7.5 million Canadians did not have medical coverall and recommended that a comprehensive, publicly administered universal health service plan be implemented Medical Care Act 1968 - Provided for equal federal-provincial cost sharing of non-hospital medical services - By 1972, all provinces and territories had extended their plan to include physicians’ services Canada Health Act 1984 - Changed the funding structure, introducing conditions that provincial health systems must meet. - Condition included the stipulation that the provincial systems must be universal and cover all medically necessary hospital and physician services. Medicare under the Microscope – From Hall to Romanow - 2001: Allan Rock (Federal Minister of Health), announced the Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada o Engage Canadians in a national dialogue on the future of health care and to make recommendation to preserve the long-term sustainability of Canada’s universally a
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