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Chapter 17

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McMaster University
Tina Fetner

Chapter 17Science the Environment and Society Chapter Study OutlineScience and SocietySociologists of science look at the interactions between science and societyA paradigm is the framework within which scientists operate There are particular paradigms for particular branches of scientific researchAccording to Thomas Kuhn normal science is the science conducted within an existing paradigm During the practice of normal science discoveries may be made that add to or clarify but dont challenge the existing paradigmThomas Kuhn theorizes that scientific revolutions also called paradigm shifts occur when enough anomalies accrue during the practice of normal science to challenge the existing paradigmNormative science is the notion that science is unaffected by the personal beliefs or values of scientists but rather follows objective rules of evidence In practice however social factors such as funding availability government policies which in turn can be affected by interest groups and international pressure or competition can affect choices about what scientific research is pursuedBoundary work refers to research conducted on the border between legitimate and nonlegitimate science either within a specific scientific discipline or between disciplines Anthropologists Bruno Latour and Steve Woolgar claim that scientific facts dont just re
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