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Chapter 5

Sociology 2R03 Chapter 5.docx

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McMaster University
Augie Fleras

Chapter 5 Gendered inequality: living in a man’s world? Introduction  First womens day: 1911  Women continue to be underrepresented in areas that count (from federal politics to corporate boardrooms) and overrepresented in areas that don’t count (from disproportionate shre of childbearing responsibilities and unpain caregiving and domestic chores, despite growing partner involvement)  The feminine mystique: critique of gender relations that proved as revolutionary in raising public consciousness o The second sex (Simone de Beauvoir) had earlier critiqued the perception of women as second class citizens whose worth and work suffered because of a male dominated world  Friedan captured the zeitgeist of an era by equating the unhappiness and boredom of middle-class women with “comfortable concentration camps: o A profound sense of emptiness tormented those women who sought fulfillment and identity by being sexually passive, accepting male domination as natural and normal, doting over children and husbands at the expense of personal empowerment, obsessing over appreaances, and embracing housework to the exclusion of careers or choices  Emergence of feminism as a powerful social movement proved consequential in: challenging conventional views about the status of women in society, contesting the rigidly defined scripts associated with womanhood, and reassessing their relationships to society along more equitable lines  Womenly skills and traits including social intelligence, open communication, and adaptability to new srroundings rather than physical strength are increasingly in demand in a postindustrial/ manufacturing service economy Debate: the end of men: towards matriarchy?  Book by Hanna Rosin  Argued that male domination and control was being wrested away from women along almost every measure, with corresponding transformations to gender relations and the power dynamis that inform the social landscape o Female parity with men in many professions o Disproportionate success at postsecondary levels o Women’s abilite to have children without relying on male support o Younger men particularly from the working classes falling behind in education or dropping out of the job market Continued  Gender gaps: legal/domestic inequality, institutionalized access to power, privilege, and property, abuse (physical, emotional, and psychological), demeaning stereptypes, politics, “womens work” (domestic work, clierical, sales, service, “girl ghettos”, “second shift” (work and domestic)  2004: 7 best place to be a mother 2012: dropped out of top 20  Canada scored a gender gap of 21%  Canada has good freedom from violence, workplace opportunities, and quality of health  Women aged 25 to 29 with a graduate or phd earned 96 cents for their male counterpart o Women with a BA earned 89 cents for every dollar of their male counterpart o Women without a high school education earned 67 cents for every dollar of their male counterpart  Women earned more then men in the fiels of physical and life sciences and in health/parks/recreation/leisure o In this case women earned $1.07 for their male counterpart FYI Patriarchy: it’s a man’s world  Patriarchy remains the prevailing form of social and political organization in society  Patriarchy: social system designed and organized to reflect male realities, reinforce male experiences, and advance male interests as natural, normal, and superior, while dismissing other interests, realities, and experiences as irrelevant or inferior  Masculinity is more highly valued than feminine values, the social, economic, cultural, and political are controlled by men, males have preferential access to the good things in life, and males or manliness constitute the norm by which others are judged  Mosogyny: hatred of women  Sexism : covers that constellation of beliefs and practices that openly asserts the superiority of one gender over the other because of preconceived notions of what in normal, acceptable, and superior  Androcentrism: the inclination to automatically and routinely interpret reality from the poit of view of male interests and experiences; to posit the interpretational as natural and normal, and to dismiss alternate interepretations as irrelevant or inferior o Men are defined as natural born leaders, women are natural born nurturers Continued  Womanly techniques are being used as often as manly; men are experiencing an indentity crisis  Canada remains arguably a “White man’s” world in terms of foundational principles, societal priorities, hidden agendas, core values, institutional frameworks, and constitutional orders  Gender relations are ultimately unequal realtions involving the dynamics of power, privilege, and property; they are invariably unequal because gender as a social location remains a key variable in defining inputs and shaping outcomes in a world that neither reflects women’s realities not is designed with them in mind  A gendered inequality also refers to the systemic biases inherent within the founding assumptions and foundational principles of a patriarchal constitutional order, that is, founded by men, organized to reflect their interests, revolving around their realities, and normalizing their experiences  Inequality is gendered because society id ideologically loaded and deeply embedded with values, beliefs, and norms that draw attention to male aspects of reality as normal and necessary, while tending to dismiss female dimensions as irrelevant or inferior Gendered inequalities: Canada and abroad  186 countries have ratified the convention for the elimination of all forms of discriminagion against women; 173 countries provide paid maternity leave, 139 countried have constitutionally enshrined the principle of gender equality, 125 countries outlaw domestic violence, 117 countries have equal pay laws, and 115 countries guarantee women’s equal preoperty rights  No country treats women as good as men  61 countries restrict a womans right to abortion, 127 do not explicitly criminalize rape within marriage, 53% of women work in dirty, dangerous, and precarious jobs  The average pay gap ranges from 10-30 percent  Gender empowerment measure 2009: Cnaada came in 12 of 109 countries meaning Canadian women were just four fifths of the way to equality with men based on Parliamentary seats, proportion of administrative, professional and managerial jobs and earning power st  Annual global gender gap 2012: Canada ranked 21 out of 135 based on economic opportunity, political participation, educational attainment, and health and survival indicators Employment status  Nearly 47% of Canada’s labour force is women  8.1 million women had a paid job, representing an employment rate of 58 percent compared to 65 % of men  Percentage of women in part time work raised by 27%  Over 2/3 of women work in elementary teaching, nursing/health related, secretaries and office clerics, or retail sales service  Women comprise 51% of business and financial occupations Income earnings  Women earn about 61% of what men earn  In 2005: women working full time in full-year employment earned an average of $39 200 or 70.5% of men ($55 700)  Single women earned 95.5% of men and married women earned 67.7 percent of married men  Women made more then men only in social work  Many more women in the lowest 3 paying jobs and many more men in highest 3 paying jobs FYI: income disparities for women in the united states, 2010  Female lawyers made 78 cents for every $1 of their male counterpart; female university profs made 80 cents for every male dollar, and female physicians made 63 cents for every male dollar, female CEOs made 74 cents for every male dollar  Women with the MBA start with $4600 less than m
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