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Chapter 6

Sociology 2R03 Chapter 6.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOCIOL 2R03
Professor
Augie Fleras
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 6 Racializing inequality in a racialized Canada Introduction: the racialization of inequality, the inequality of racialization  Racialized minorities do not share equally in the creation of wealth, power, and social status  Stratification: inequality concentrated among minority groups  Cost of admission to Canada disadvantages newcomers compared to the Canadian born  Both racialized privilege and systemic biases remain deeply embedded in the founding assumptions and foundational principles that govern Canada’s constitutional order  Racialized minorities population: 47%, racialized minorities in government 7%, 4.2% of the city’s corporate senior leadership  Arabs, Filipinos, Latino, and Southeast Asians have no members of parliament at any level  Emphasis should focus on the social structures that trigger inequality, social dynamics that reinforce patterns of power and privilege, and social fields that distribute life chances in an unequal manner  A macro-perspective put the emphasis on analyzing how racialized inequities are created, expressed, and sustained as well as challenged and transformed by way of government initiative, institutional reform, and minority assertiveness Patterns of Racialized Inequality in Canada FYI: Racialized as inequality  Racialized male immigrants make 68.7 cents for every dollar earned by a white male; racialized female immigrants make 48.8 cents for ever dollar earned by a white women  Racialized minorities earned 81.4 cents for every dollar earned whi a white Canadian (only Japanese outearned white workers), racialized men are 24% more likely to be unemployed than non racialized whites  Non racialized Canadians earning grew by 2.7% between 2000 and 2005 while racialized Canadians’ average devline by 0.2%  Racialized Canadians experienced an unemployment rate of 8.6% compared to 6.3% for non racialized Canadians  In 2005, 19.8 percent of racialized families lived in poverty, compared to 6.4% of non racialized families Income differences  Canadian born racialized men earned 18% less than non racialized white, while racialized women earned 3% less than white women  Male and female immigrants who arrived ten years earlier earned about the same as Canadian-born workers; in 1000, immigrants who had lived in Canada for 10 years were making considerably less than Canadian born workers  Male Immigrants to Canadian workers made 79.8%, women immigrants to Canadian women made 87.3%  All immigrants with full time jobs in 2005 earned an average of $45 000 ($700 less than average for Canadian born workers), wage for new immigrants $28 700  Recent immigrant men earned 48 percent of their educated Canadian-born counterparts, whereas recent immigrant women with degrees earned 42% of Canadian born women with degrees  Recent immigrants reflect patterns of extremes  Second generation immigrants between the ages of 25 and 44 earned less ($39 814) than either non immigrants ($40 358) or white immigrants ($45 352) for any level of education  Recent immigrant males with some employment income earned 85% of what their Canadian born counterparts earned in 1980, by 2005 the figure dropped to 63%  For recent immigrant women the figure went from 85% in 1980 to 56% in 2005 Insight box: what’s in a name? Name discrimination in Canada  Oreopolous: sent out 6000 different kind of CV’s o Interview rates for English named applicants with Canadian credentials were three times higher than resumes with foreign sounding names and credentials o Changing foreign resumes to include Canadian experience upped call back rates to 11% o Among resumes with 4-6 years of Canadian experience, regardless of where the degree was obtained, had no impact on chances for interview request o Those applicants with English sounding names received 40% more interview requests than those with similar CV’s but foreign sounding names Continued  Human capital skills do not transfer well and are discounted once in Canada, with the result that one year of overseas experience is deemed equivalent to one-third of a year of domestic experience, while foreign education is worth 75% of Canadian born person’s education Racialized poverty  Racialization involves a process by which groups are designated as racially different and subject to differential treatment because of associated negative stereotypes, and disproportionately concentrated and racialized in certain domains such poverty  Poverty is neither colour-blind nor randomly distributed across all Canadians; rather they clustered around certain historically disadvantaged minorities 
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