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Chapter 9

Sociology 2R03 Chapter 9.docx

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McMaster University
Augie Fleras

Chapter 9: schooling and education Introduction: inequality as schooling, schooling as inequality  Three major funtions of schooling and education feed into this line of thought, including: to impart knowledge and skills, to prepare individuals for citizenship and the workworld, and to foster individual development through intellectual cultivation  Schools also prepare people for adult work by socializing workers to function compliantly in mainstream society (assimilationist and controlling)  2.6$ of GDP is spent on colleges and universities  13% have no high school education, 92% have finished high school, 25% of Canadians are enrolled in university  Women have better academic achievements then men at all levels, female graduation is 8% higher (highschool), 11% higher (college), and 18% higher (university)  Less than half of aboriginals graduate high school  Schools appear to be designed for conformity rather than change, rigidity rather than flexibility, consensus rather than disagreement, social reproduction rather than social reality, credentials over creativity, and to prepare people around the industrial age rather than an information driven economy  High school students are accused of suffering from a terminal overdose of media exposure resulting in: diminishing attention spans, discomfort with the written word, acceptance of discontinuity and fragmentation as normal conditions of experience, disrespect for the past as a source of inspiration or wisdom, and defiance of authority  The dominant university model may need to be jettisoned for one whose operations are streamlined to run like businesses while incorporating new teaching and learning systems thanks to the democratization of online knowledge and giditalization of technologies for delivery  The learning styles of todays wired students are immersed through interaction with digital tools, collaboration outside the classroom, and online experiences  Universities have an indentity crisis  Four issues key in moderating patterns of inequality by improving the lives and life chances of those less fortunate o Education and schooling as sites of inequality o Education and schooling in perpetuating inequality o The challenge of diversity is proving a source of inequality o Problems of inequality in postsecondary education arise from gaps between ideals and reality  Schools are safe havens that nurture and protect yet hell holes where student must perform and conform Inclusivizing schooling: multicultural education and anti racist schooling  Commitment to the principles of inclusive/ intergrative multiculturalism including diverse models of multicultural education (enrichment, enlightenment embracive, and empowerment), with their emphasis on changing individual attitudes through exposure to cultural differences  Anti racist models of school focus on eradicating racism throughout the entire school system through removal of discriminatory barriers and structures associated with power and exclusion Monocultural education:  Aligned with the principles and practices for advancing anglo-conformity Case study: residential school: aggressive assimilation or schooling as genocide?  Of 15 schools, 24% of the 1537 children in the survey died while in the care of the school Multicultural education: models and missions  Challenged how schools should relate to difference, while raising questions over the dynamics of formal education in a changing and diverse society  Modifys existing content and protocols to improve involvement and success  Enrichment, enlightenment, embracive, and empowerment o Enrichment model: students are exposed to a variety of different cultures to enhance knowledge of and appreciation for cultural diversity; healthy identity formation, cultural preservation, intercultural sensitivity, stereotyping awareness, and cross-cultural communication; non- threatening nature o Enlightenment model: enlightens students about race and relations in society; go beyond specific cultures; broader analytical approach toward diversity not as a “thing” but as a relationship, both hierarchal and unequal o Embracive model: focused on attitude modification, by transforming the culture of the classroom in terms of values, standards, and perspectives; acknowledges that excluding diverse cultural values from the classroom can prove alienating for foreign students and racialized minority students o Empowerment model: directed primarily at motivating and enhancing racialized and Aboriginal students; creating culturally safe places within society for minorities or creating minority specialized schools Insight box: schooling as empowerment: Islamic focus schools  37 Islamic schools in Ontario Continued  Residential school schools seek to impart those schills for aboriginal children success in the outside w
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