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Sociology (229)
Chapter 10

2R03 Chapter 10 Textbook Notes.docx

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McMaster University
Lina Samuel

Chapter 10 – “Abandoned Spaces, Forgotten Places” (Textbook p. 232-258)  Chicago’s Cabrini-Green housing project = high crime rates & dead end poverty was torn down and replaced by mixed-income housing  Robert Lynd & Helen Lynd (1924): sociologists who studied a place they called Middletown to study social stratification in Munchie, Indiana and studied the effects of the Great Depression  There is no “face of poverty”, rather, poverty has many faces in many different places  Urban Poverty: Abandoned Spaces (p. 234)  New York: Murder capital of the 19 century as it filled with immigrant ghettos (Irish, Jewish, and Italian) and then these spaces were filled by newcomers (African Americans, Puerto Ricans & new immigrants) th  Chicago was a gangland in the early 20 century  Over the 20 century, U.S urban problems were shaped by migration and deindustrialization: 1940s & 1950s African American and Latino’s migrated to the U.S cities in search of industrial employment  The new urban poor were concentrated in low-income ghettos  Black migrants concentrated in an area known as Bronzeville in overpriced housing known as “kitchenttes” carved from older homes  Established a low income community like Harlem  Mayor Richard Daley built high-rise dwellings like Cabrini-Green and Robert Taylor Homes which promised low-income members of the community affordable housing near employment  This is also seen in St. Louis where black migrants lived close to chemical and industrial plants  Deindustrialization & the Changing Metropolis (p.235)  William Julius Wilson: “Institutional Ghettos”: A combination of low income, public policy, and community hostility kept non-white urban groups concentrated in certain areas, often the least desirable portions of large cities  African Americans rose up to challenge deprivations and isolations of urban ghettos in the 1960s where they exploded into riots like in Detroit and Watts  Fire Enterprises: employers that remained downtown/finance, insurance and real estate businesses/Required college education and a degree which no low-income member had  Low-income members would only be offered jobs like a janitor or security guard  Institutional ghettos become jobless ghettos  Where jobs were located and what those jobs demanded of workers did not match up with where the unemployed were and what they had to offer (p. 236)  Turn to drug trafficking and street crime, where cities became unsafe for everyone  Jonathan Kozol: “Amazing Grace”-Book about the experience of children in the Mott Haven neighbourhood of the South Bronx, one of the poorest urban areas in the U.S o 2/3 of the houses children live in are owned by New York o Gets cold in the winter/have to pass out space heaters and sleeping bags o Roaches and rats come in the summer when it is really hot out  The Making & Unmaking of the Post-industrial City: (p. 236)  Deindustrialization devastated many cities th  New York was the ultimate immigrant metropolis in the beginning of the 20 century and remains a magnet for newcomers  Caribbean newcomers continue to start/grow small businesses in the city  Asian newcomers work in the textile industry  Washington, L.A & Miami are also immigrant metropolises as well  Many immigrant workers struggle with low wages, uncertain employment, no benefits, long hours, and vulnerability to exploitive employers (sweatshops in Asia or New York in the last century-RECENT)  Detroit & Chicago also draw in newcomers including Latinos and groups from the middle east, Caribbean, and Asia = “secondary migrants”  Rust belt cities like Baltimore’s Inner Harbour, Cleveland’s Nautica, and Pittsburgh’s Station Square have all been redeveloped  Overall investment in older urban areas is again up, but it is unclear how much this has benefited the urban poor  Gary and Detroit remain the most segregated cities in the U.S followed by Milwaukee (top segregated metropolitan area in the U.S), New York, Chicago and Newark, New Jersey  L.A (last segregated metropolitan area in the U.S)  (P. 238) U.S cities mirror the global economy in their contradictions: diverse interactions yet persistent segregation, islands of prosperity and wastelands of poverty, job growth and chronic underemployment, economic growth amid stagnant wages and declining fortunes (Can be applied to any world city)  Some of the cities in the U.S with the highest levels of inequality are those that are heavily dependent on commerce, government, and services in the global economy  Poverty abounds in cities across the county, largely absent only from elite new “edge cities” at the periphery of major metropolitan areas  Texas has the worst poverty rates and Illinois has the best  Brain-Gain & Brain-Drain Cities: (p. 239)  The loss of industrial jobs has been partially offset by gains in information technology jobs, jobs in research and development, and other high-technology employment = shift gained momentum in the 1980s and continues today  Rarely, have job losses and gains taken place in the same location (Ex= San Francisco Bay Area withered while nearby, San Jose and the “Silicon Valley” prospered  The cities with declining fortunes all had one thing in common: They had all been centers of old industry and were not well situated to attract new enterprises  The growing cities are centers of government and education: Austin, Albany, and Madison are state capitals and also home to major universities  Housing booms in one city benefit the other: Ann Arbor in Ypsilanti and Albany in Schenectady (one experiencing growth and one struggling)  Richard Florida (p.240): o Describes the rise of the “brain gain cities”: Cities with both the jobs and the cultural and entertainment offerings that attract college graduates, particularly bright, creative, multitalented people o Atlanta, Boston, Denver, Minneapolis, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, Portland (Oregon), Washington D.C, etc., o These cities are attractive because they look towards the future and not the past because of highly progressive leaders o Brain-drain cities lose jobs, and then they lose the people who are most likely to create new jobs = problem for bigger older cities, but most severe for small midsize cities that do not have broad economic bases to attract newcomers o Brain Drain was first coined to describe the plight of countries that educate their citizens only to watch them flee, with their educations, to places where they can enjoy higher returns on their education o India and Philippines = classic brain drain countries o Cities in India are seeing thriving and dynamic technology and marketing sectors while other parts of the country continue to struggle with massive unemployment and poverty o Brain drain/gain phenomenon is just the labour market at work o The same technology that is allowing ever more jobs, including white- collar jobs, to go overseas, is bringing some manufacturing jobs back to the U.S (Ex= Apple plant in China, workers were jumping out the window because of poor conditions in the factory so Apple moved production back to the U.S  Suburban Poverty: The Urban Fringe (p. 242):  In Latin America, poor communities often surround large urban areas  In the U.S, people have come to associate poverty with the central city, but increasingly it has spilled into the urban fringe, beyond better off suburbs=driven by the gentrification of older neighbourhoods  Public housing is scarce in many large urban areas  This means that the only affordable housing is on the urban fringe: in poor satellite communities, in trailer parks, etc.,  Major trend in the U.S for the last decade: suburbanization of poverty: the greatest growth in U.S poverty is in the suburbs  People seeking the good life have 2 options: Return to the city to buy gentrified homes, or a new generation of upscale urban apartments and condominiums  The new urban gentry tend to be people who have no children or have “empty nesters”  “Exurbia”: (beyond the ring of inner suburbs) usually where families reside
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