Textbook Notes (369,153)
Canada (162,424)
Sociology (229)
Chapter 12

2R03 Chapter 12 Textbook Notes.docx

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Lina Samuel

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Chapter 12 – “Challenging the System” (Textbook: p. 289-317)  Rachel Carson: “Silent Spring”-BOOK that launched the environmental movement  Betty Friedan: “The Feminine Mystique” launched the new women’s movement  Michael Harrington: “The Other America” launched the antipoverty movement  Ralph Nader: Attacks on General Motors launched the consumer movement  Martin Luther King Jr.: “I have a dream” launched the civil rights movement  Events of 1848 shook the political and social world o European cities in flames due to riots of democratic movements o Marx and Engles captured this in “The Communist Manifesto” o Mexican-American war was countered with an antiwar movement whose ideas found form in Thoreau’s “Civil Disobedience” o Frederick Douglas began the abolitionist newspaper the North Star= antislavery Free Soil Party was created o Elizabeth Cady Stanton: right to vote to women but got the right to own land for the first time in New York  Social movements: ongoing efforts by groups to prevent or promote social change  Social movements work beyond the formal political process and often attract those who find themselves excluded from that process  Gain force through collective action: people coming together in both planned and spontaneous actions and demonstrations  New social movements are emerging in post-industrial global society: social, economic and environmental issues  Seattle (2000): Protests against the World Trade Organization comprised with new social movements even though it had ties since 1848 o Gray suits: labor leaders o Whale suits: young environmentalists o Pantsuits: “raging grannies”  The Enduring Struggle: The Labor Movement (p. 291):  Marx: History is the history of class conflict  Labor unions and big business has been a class struggle for the past 150 years  From 1840’s – WW2, workers have been flooding in industrial America  Triangle Shirtwaist (1911) factory fire killed more than 150 women and 700 workers  (p. 292) Challenges to working conditions came from early attempts to unionize workers  Knights of Labour: Industrial workers of the world and the Western Federation of Miners  Samuel Gompers: American Federation of Labour (AFL): Organized “locals” around particular craft specialties and embraced a political agenda/factory workers had little voice because it was focused on skilled craft workers  Muckrakers: Journalists that wrote about the abuses that workers suffered  Upton Sinclair: “The Jungle” & Frank Norris: “The Octopus” wrote about the same things  WW1 created the Soviet Union=U.S had a ”red scare”  Socialist sympathies were the motivation behind union organizing and were deemed bad  1920’s saw a drop in immigration but had Blacks getting urban industrial jobs in the North  Reagans first official act as president was to fire the air traffic controllers and to seek replacements  Striking workers now faced a double threat: Replaced by overseas workers at a fraction of the U.S wages or replaced by the many unemployed workers from the recession of 1970’s and 80’s from deindustrialization  Unions were negotiating the size of wage decreases instead of increases  In the 1980s, global economics weakened the power of labour  Union memberships are again rising because of increased organizing among professionals and service workers  U.S is the least unionized country in the world  Canada has 3 times the unionization than the states  Michael Buraway: “Manufacturing Consent”: suggested that Marx’s competitive capitalism was giving way to monopoly capitalism and workers are submitted willingly into their own exploitation  Unions in developing countries are even weaker than unions in the U.S  Unions have been including more women and people of color over the years  Environmental movement embraced with “blue-green” alliances  No Sweat: International Labor and Consumer Activism (p.295):  Capital has gone increasingly international, labor organization remains local and national  Power of capital will have to be met by the international organization of labor  Next step is for national organizations to cooperate in international workers’ groups similar to the “Wobblies”: early labor organizations  Multinational cooperate policy has been swayed by growing consumer activism: EX= Nike  Worker Rights Consortium=University students clothing must be approved by this organization before distribution to students on the campus  Boycotts and inspections of sweatshops have become central to student activism in the 21 century  Consumer activism recognized forced child labor 6 years and younger  Pakistan and India have forced child labor and same with Japan, but it launched the countries into the industrial era=positive  Jane Addams: denounced the :theft of childhood”=negative  Lewis Hine: travelled to the U.S for 4 years and photographed children working which inspired the Keating-Owen Act which restricted child labor  250% increase in child labor law violations between 1983-1990 in the U.S  Craig Kleinburger: Canadian who founded Free the Children and said that young people long for something more meaningful in their lives that proves themselves  Occupy Wisconsin: The Return of Labour Struggle (p. 298):  Scott Walker: government of Wisconsin ended a stand-off with Wisconsin teachers union with new legislation in 2011  Wanted to end their collective bargaining rights  Reflected “Fighting Bob” La Follette  Broke tradition  Occupy wall street was born along with Occupy Oakland, Occupy Chicago and Occupy Minneapolis  Gender & Power: The Women’s Movement (p. 300):  Charlotte Perkins Gilman: said that the “ideal” Victorian woman were supposed to be devoted mothers yet largely free from sexual passion were in fact ”over-sexed”  Stephanie Coontz: re
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