SOCIOL 1A06 Chapter Notes - Chapter 15-162012: Siq, Visible Minority, Occupational Inequality

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Published on 18 Apr 2013
Department
Society in Question (SIQ) Notes: Sociology 1A06 Prof Colavecchia McMaster University
2012/2013
Race & Ethnicity:
Chapter 15: “Multiculturalism or Vertical Mosaic?” – Occupational stratification among
Canadian ethnic groups.
Ancestral roots of Canada: Europe or to Asia
Our official government policy of multiculturalism implies a mix of equal cultures
Multiculturalism highlights cultural blending and ethnic equality
Diverse cultural heritages are supported through many institutions including ethnic
media outlets, ethnic churches and schools, and ethnic restaurants
Equality of diverse cultures is promoted by governments but also by schools
(multicultural curricula now permeate in the school system, social studies courses,
recognize religious holidays, and celebrate ethnic heritage days)
Different cultural traditions provide separate ethnic identities within a common,
egalitarian framework
John Porter: had a contrasting vision of Canada (1965). He imagined a “vertical mosaic”
which he thought Canada’s ethnic groups were vertically arranged. He said distinct
social groups were defined by social class and ethnicity. These groups were vertically
ranked according to income, power, and prestige. “Mosaic” highlights distinct ethnic
identities. Porter saw little mixing or blending. He said the vertical mosaic accentuates
distinct cultures and ethnic inequality. Porter described Canada as a nation fractured by
ethnicity. He saw the French and the British as two “charter status” groups,
commanding greater power and privilege than “entrance status” groups (other
immigrants). Power favoring the British over the French. He said that immigration and
ethnic affiliation were important factors in the formation of social classes. He said
economic power belong almost exclusively to White Protestants of British origins. But
more recent analyses of the wealthiest Canadians show less British dominance and
British and Canadian elites contain more people from other ethnic backgrounds at one
time. By using Census data from 1931, 1951, and 1961, he showed which ethnic groups
dominated which job categories. Examples: British and Jewish groups were
overrepresented in professional and financial occupations and underrepresented in
unskilled and primary jobs (fishing). Explanations for this include British people bringing
professional skills and occupational experiences recognized in Canada, and others from
other ethnic backgrounds did not have these skills. Also, social mobility was correlated
with ethnicity meaning, it varied in how much they valued economic achievement and
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upward mobility or found that discrimination dampened their labour force market
success.
1971-Canada adopts multiculturalism as official federal government policy
1986-Employment Equality Act- eliminates the subordinate positions of women, the
disables, Aboriginal peoples, and visible minorities. Requires employers to hire
according to equity targets to overcome ethnic inequality in the labor force
Now, occupational experience is more valued than birthplace for new entrants in
Canada
Researchers say the vertical mosaic imagery needs revising on its “color coding”. The
association between ethnicity and social class has been retained. Now we have a “new
ethnic mosaic…redrafted along lines of race and color”
Laurtard and Loree (1984, researchers) concluded that occupational inequality still
justifies the use of the concept of the vertical mosaic to characterize ethnic relations in
Canada, but provide no test for the two explanations Porter offered about the
association between ethnicity and class
Monica Boyd (1985, researcher on the influence of birthplace on occupational
attainment) offers a test of the immigration interpretation saying that for foreign-born
men and women, ethnic ancestry was correlated with occupational attainment. Found a
“double negative” that reinforced the vertical mosaic concluding that birthplace and sex
are very important factors underlying the Canadian mosaic
Limitations:
Ethnicity: privileges male descent lines used by Statistics Canada for measurement
purposes. Problems: Porters view of the charter status groups (French and British) drew
no distinction between the English, Irish, Scottish, and the Welsh. Asian ethnic groups
were unable to be published for a long time because the ethnic group was too small
Occupations: Porter only used 5 broad occupational categories (professional, financial,
clerical, personal service, primary and unskilled, and agriculture). However, Lautard and
Loree used more detailed ones. Only if jobs have different rewards attached to them
does inequality become an issue. Problems: The vertical mosaic implies hierarchy, but it
doesn’t define what the hierarchy is
Historical Comparability: Number and kinds of occupations have changed over time in
Canada, as well as the way Statistics Canada collects information, and the detail in how
ethnicity has changed historically
Using census data to track labour market changes for member of ethnic groups is highy
problematic
To summarize enormous detail of research analyses we measure occupational
differentiation by calculating an index of dissimilarity (always positive, the higher the
index number, the higher the similarity in for example, gender balance in each one of
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Document Summary

Society in question (siq) notes: sociology 1a06 prof colavecchia mcmaster university. Chapter 15: multiculturalism or vertical mosaic? occupational stratification among. Ancestral roots of canada: europe or to asia. Our official government policy of multiculturalism implies a mix of equal cultures. Multiculturalism highlights cultural blending and ethnic equality. Diverse cultural heritages are supported through many institutions including ethnic media outlets, ethnic churches and schools, and ethnic restaurants. Equality of diverse cultures is promoted by governments but also by schools (multicultural curricula now permeate in the school system, social studies courses, recognize religious holidays, and celebrate ethnic heritage days) Different cultural traditions provide separate ethnic identities within a common, egalitarian framework. John porter: had a contrasting vision of canada (1965). He imagined a vertical mosaic which he thought canada"s ethnic groups were vertically arranged. He said distinct social groups were defined by social class and ethnicity. These groups were vertically ranked according to income, power, and prestige.

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