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Chapter 3, 12, 10

SOCIOL 1A06 Chapter 3, 12, 10: New Society Quiz 2.docx

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Sandra Colavecchia
3, 12, 10

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New Society
Chapter 3
What is Socialization?
Self: a sense of individual identity that allows us to understand ourselves and
differentiate ourselves from others
oConstrained by societal norms and values
oFree to decided how to behave
No sense of ourselves as distinct and autonomous human beings without
interaction with others
Socialization: the social process whereby people undergo development by
interacting with the people around them
oMakes social interaction, organization and order possible
oOccurs in a cultural context
oIndividual difference also product of socialization
oHelps explain similarities and differences among people in a particular
oMostly takes place informally, with the participants unaware they are
being socialized
Primary Socialization: crucial learning process that occurs in childhood and
makes us members of society
Secondary Socialization: leaning that occurs after people have undergone
primary socialization
oBeing a student and parent, learning a job, moving, joining clubs…etc.
Nature and Nurture
Instincts: inborn patterns of behavior that are often responses to specific stimuli
Nature: Biological Inheritance
Nurture: Social Environment
Nature and Nurture are inseparable
Need for interaction shown in:
1. Feral Children: Children who are raised up alone in the wilderness or are raised
by wild animals
Victor—“Wild Boy of Aveyron”—1799, France
2. Children raised in isolation provide evidence for the need for interaction
Genie—1970, California
Locked away from age 2-13. No communication whatsoever.
Described as “unsocialized, primitive, hardly human”
3. Evident in institutionalized children
Nicolae Ceauçescu toppled in 1989, Romania
Romanian children raised in orphanages
Delayed in motor and mental development. Displayed clumsy and
inappropriate social behavior.

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Without human contact, socialization is impaired, the individual is but a
shell of a human being, and irreversible damage may be done to the person’s
sense of self
The Self and Socialization
Sigmund Freud
Proposed one of the first social-scientific interpretations of the process by which
the self emerges
Infants demand immediate gratification, but begin to form a self-image when their
demands are denied
Personal conscience is a storehouse of cultural standards
Argues only social interaction allows self to emerge (using infant example)
Charles Horton Cooley
Introduced the idea of Looking-Glass Self—1902
Looking-Glass Self: look to others (their gestures and reaction) to see a reflection
of our social self. How we believe other people are judging us.
Emphasis on how we perceive and interpret other peoples reactions and gestures
Without social mirror there is no sense of self
Self-image emerges from involvement in groups and communication with others
Significant Others: people, such as parents, who are of central importance in the
development of self (first images of self)
Primary Group: small group, typically family, that is characterized by intimate,
face-to-face association and cooperation (first image either completed or
George Herbert Mead
Explored the interplay between the individual and society
Foundation of Symbolic Interactionism
Society is essential to human development
Thinking is possible only if we can communicate symbolically
Symbols: gestures, objects, and sounds that stands for something else and whose
meaning depends on shared understanding
Key of socialization: taking the role of the other
Taking the Role of the other: involves anticipating in advance how others will
see and react to you. It is an essential skill that children must develop to be
members of society.
oFirst Stage: Imitative Stage
Children 2 years and younger cannot interact effectively with
others because they can’t take the role of the other. They imitate
and mimic the behaviors of other.
oSecond Stage: Play Stage eg. Soccer Tournament
Children begin to adopt the roles of significant others and their
play shifts from imitative to imaginative (use language instead of
only physical action).

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Do not see role-playing as a social necessity. They play at social
roles of life.
o Third Stage: Game Stage
Children have developed a generalized impression of the behavior
people expect as well as awareness of their own importance to the
other and vice versa.
Generalized Other: conception of how people in general will respond in a
situation. It is internalized.
oComprises of values, attitudes, and beliefs
oRespond to our idea of the organized group or community we are a part of
oObserve the conduct and reactions of other people, ascertain their POV,
anticipate what is expected of us, plan, rehearse, modify, and perfect our
own behavior accordingly
The “I”: the subjective part of the self. Acts.
The “Me”: the objective part of the self. Reflects on our actions through the lens
of social norms, values and expectations.
The self is:
Conformist (me) and Active (I)
Reflective (me) and Experiencing/Experienced (I)
I and Me engage in “internal conversation”
oContinuous throughout our lives
Sense of self continuous to develop as we encounter new contexts and contracts
Paul Willis
Focused on identity formation continuation in adolescents
Variations in the social contexts within which teens and young adults forge,
maintain, and transform their identities
Class, racial, ethnic, gender and regional difference are associated with
differences in socialization patterns
People do NOT automatically learn the norms and values of the social context in
which they happen to find themselves
By stressing the links among creativity, identity, and social context, it suggests
that young people take advantage of every opportunity to make the everyday
world around them meaningful
Human beings are creative and strategic social actors, not pawns of vast,
impersonal forces
Acknowledges that social categories make a difference
Your socialization depends on who you hang out with and what your status is
Status: refers to the culturally and socially defined position a person occupies in
an interaction
Gender Socialization
Gender Socialization: process by which individuals learn to become feminine or
masculine according to expectations current in their society
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