NS - Chapter 11 – Work and Occupations.docx

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Chapter 11 Work and Occupations
Nonstandard jobs: part-time, contractual, and seasonal work; multiple job holding; work
secured through a temporary worker agency and self-employed.
The first and second industrial revolutions
The industrial revolution started in England in the late eighteenth century, completing the
transition from feudalism to capitalism.
Under feudalism most people worked as peasant farmers and a few skilled artisans made
tools and a variety of goods.
During the IR under feudalism, most farmers produced enough to meet their own needs.
The transition to capitalism transformed peasant farmers into wage-earning factory
workers.
Division of labor expanded, which is to say that work previously done by skilled
craftspeople was broken down into smaller components, so semi-skilled workers, who
were paid less than the skilled crafts people, could perform factory jobs.
Contextualizing the Canadian labor market
Canada’s labor force is now older. Canada’s population is also more educated than it was
30 years ago. Another change in the labor market is the growing reliance on immigration
to meet the demand for skilled workers.
Women now make up just under half of the paid workforce.
Economy shifted from primary production to secondary production to tertiary production
(service industries)
Reasons for the shift: increased global competitiveness facilitated the movement of much
manufacturing to low-wage countries, free trade agreements with the US and Mexico
facilitated the migration of manufacturing jobs out of Canada.
Deindustrialization: the shift from a goods to a service based economy.
It reduced the number of unionized, well paying, full time manufacturing jobs and
increased the number of “bad” jobs located in the lower-tier service industries.
Good or bad jobs?
At minimum, good jobs provide extrinsic rewards, such as high wages, good benefits,
employment security and opportunities from advancement.
Good jobs can also provide intrinsic rewards, such as decision-making opportunities,
challenging, non-repetitive work; and autonomy that allows for self-direction and
responsibility over tasks.
Knowledge occupations are defined as those where a high proportion of workers have a
university education.
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