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Chapter 2

SOCIOL 3U03 Chapter 2: Chapter 2

Course Code
Tina Fetner

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Chapter 2
- The ignorance of thought and thirst for knowledge among students made Kinsey want to
pursue sexuality as his career
o Born into a sexually repressed family and culture
Understanding sex through science
- Theories attempt to explain and understand the world
o The science of sexology uses systematic objective methods to gather data
Although goal is to remain objective, the scientific process is infused w
cultural assumptions
Time period and culture influence what knowledge is produced
The early years
- Before 19th C sexuality was regarded as a moral concern authority = religious leaders
o Primal, bodily instincts AND sinful
o Consequences of adam and eve
God punishes women by creating pain in childbirth and by saying men rule
God punishes men by making them work for their survival
Inspired that women were temptresses, both were morally weak
o Sex was only for marriage, and only for reproduction
- Religion remained influence unti mid 1800s w medicine, reason, and science increased
o Physicians became the authority, although still approached it from a moral
o Victorian era was understood as a cultural period w restrictive ideas of gender
and sexology
Encouraged discipline and restraint
Ie masturbation as a deadly disease that needs to be controlled and
- Men were polyamorous whereas women were monogamous (believed)
o Women as passive and lacking desire expectation that women must help men
tame themselves
- Womens bodies were largely ignored and misunderstood hysteria was actually sexual
o Treated w sex or massage on the physicians table
o Vibrator invented in 1880s specifically for treating hysteria
Hysteria dropped in 1952
- Originally believed to be a fact of nature, essential aspect of humanity
- Krafft Ebbing nonprocreative sex = pathological bc only for reproduction
o First book to equate hetero w normal
o Influenced medicine w his views that reflected repressive sexual code
- KE 4 categories of sexual deviation
o 1. Homosexuality: contrary sexual feeling
o 2. Fetishism: erotic obsession w certain parts of the body or items
o 3. Sadism: getting pleasure from inflicting pain

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Inherent in men
o 4. Masochism: getting pleasure from receiving pain
Inherent in women
- Freud sadomasochism component part of human sexual instinct “sexual
- Going from the Victorian into mod era, several scientists attempted to dispel
misconceptions from the latter era
o 19th C classifying sex behaviours that were before invisible
More accepting
o Bloch: “sexual science”
o Goal is to discover the laws that gov sexuality, began to Q ehy humans have
specific sexual instincts
- Ellis transgender individ
o Modern right of women to sexual satisfaction necessary for health
o First to argue that homo wasn’t immoral or pathological
o Introduced notions of narcissism and autoeroticism (satisfaction gained from one
owns bodies)
Got them to think of things for a pleasure based perspective rather than
- Hirschfeld founded institute for sexology in berlin first one to accumulate a ton of
o Homosexuality, transgender, cross-dressing, and gender ID
o Tried to eradicate homophobia by detailing bio info about the orientation
Tried to decriminalize it
Sought justice
o Gay and jewish academic, when the nazi’s came into power they attacked his
instituted, burning its archives
- Mosher one of first female sexologists and first to conduct a sex survey
o Studying women born in the Victorian era
o Results showed a cultural shift in views of sex from reproduction personal
desire and intimacy
2/3 of study said desire was a legit reason for sex
1/3 had an orgasm regularly
Sexology in imperial japan
- Huge social changes resulting from modernization politically, economically, and social
o Implemented a constitution, industrialization, increased communication and
- Began in 1890s as japan sought international status and world power through victorious
wars against china and Russia and colonizing a lot
- Sexology developed during colonial expansion and militarization to est a normative
Japanese sex
o Validation from experts managed and controlled the creation of sexual ideas
and norms
Senji goal to discover what was normal and healthy

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Masturbated a lot and first sex was a prostitute and they are
normal and healthy
More interested in reform believed in the masses gain sex
education it would lead to liberation
o Influenced by political debates and social polices
- Sex edu, venereal diseases, masturbation, birth control, prostitution were central focuses
Psychoanalytical theory: freud
- Viewed sex from a bio perspective as the driving force in human behaviour
o Sexual drive was beyond conscious personal awareness
- Saw the human sex drive oriented to pleasure and biological urge to reproduce bc
normal, it also widened what also is considered normal touching, kissing, looking
o He saw the role of society as an important factor in shaping an inds sexual
expressions (or lack of)
o Explained ind development from infancy to adulthood involving a series of stages
of psychosexual adaptions
Both sexes faced psychosexual demands and must control their
unconscious drives while abiding cultural expectations
- 5 stages: oral, anal, phallic, latent, genital
o Begins @ birth
o Sexes similar but differ drastically in phallic stage that happens from 3-5
Realize their genitalia are different and respond accordingly
Boys activity results in longing for their mother Oedipus
o Bc girls don’t have penises, they think that they are
o Competition for love of their mothers w fathers, think the
dad might castrate them as a result castration complex
o To be sexually healthy, boys must resolve conflict w their
fathers and deny sexual feelings for their mom
Girls believes she should have a penis and the result was it was
castrated, the vagina is the wound
o Develops an inferiority complex and desire for a penis
penis envy
o Want to reproduce w their fathers while blaming their
moms for their castration
o The clit is what is left of the penis to be healthy women
must direct attention away from clit and to the vagina
Vaginal orgasm is more mature than clit
reinforcing hetero as normal
- Although his ideas are not wide held, he challenged repressive norms by shifting cultural
o Women are inferior to men
Feminist psychoanalytic theorists (horney, Chodorow, Kaschak) have
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