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Chapter 3

SOCIOL 3U03 Chapter 3: Chapter 3

Course Code
Tina Fetner

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Chapter 3
- Cisgender somehow whose self ID conforms to their bio gender
- Gender refers to socially constructed patterns of behaviour assoc w and assigned to bio
o How our society is organized
o Gender is multifaceted and malleable
Can be redefined throughout life
- Nonconformers are increasingly visible
Social constructions of gender femininity and masculinity
- Gender is a social construction
- Garfinkle gender is a daily enacted task and performance
o Kessler and McKenna not a reflection of bio but a social construction that varies
across cultures
o Lorber gender as something inds produce to create ID, statuses, and reproduce
to create the structure and constraints of the social world
- Socially constructed on a spectrum that is polarized btwn femininity and masculinity
o Presented as a binary referred to as gender binary system
o m/f are constructed as opposite, thus having no meaning separate from each
m unemotional, independent, aggressive, physically strong, logical, and
self confident
f passive, emotionally vulnerable, dependent, weak, irrational, self
all of these are just broad human traits
- taught from birth from interaction w parents, peers, schools, workplace, and media
gender socialization
o we learn what it means to be an acceptable fe/male
rarely do HS teams allow girls and boys to be on the same team
at hospital given coloured clothing
men are protectors and econ providers, women are nurtures and
certain jobs assoc w genders
o expected to behave in specific was or the consequences are social rejection,
humiliation and violence social gender order
- gender normal following gender assignments their entire lives
o cisgender self ID conforms to cultural assignment
latin word meaning on this side of
o presume that gender reflects biological sex in all their interactions
o assume personal gender normalness reflects societies norms
non-W cultures
- binary gender code is not universal
o institutionalized gender diversity can be found in all cultures throughout the

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o sometimes accept a third gender intermediate btwn masculine and feminine,
neither gender, ability to cross or swap genders, or another thing independent of
two spirit among native American cultures
in most cases a man who dresses in womens clothing/activities
also describes a woman who dresses/behaves like a man
a gender continuum
o gender doesn’t always inform sex preference
fa’afafine samoa – bio man at birth who embided feminine gender traits
have sex exlusively w men but sometimes women
fa’a – in the manner of
fafine woman
kathoey a man dressing, behaving, or ID as female
kathoey a second type female
a third sex
visible in everyday life
o many tourists describe them as cultural symbols of
widespread acceptance but systematic institutional discrimination
all nonbinary
gender ID
- performance of gender is described as an inds gender ID
o externally and internally prescribed
o a personal and ind process informed by cultures prescribed gender roles but
also separate and indep of them
- gender ID is not always fixed or resolute
- gender fluidity is a term to describe a flexible range of gender expressions that change
o gender fluid person can express gender changes in their behaviour, or adopt
gender fluidity as their gender id
- androgyny an ind who displays and ID w both gender traits
o bowie or prince
- can be undifferentiated don’t id or display characteristics at all
o undifferentiated coined by bem in development of the bem sex role inventory
not the same as androgynous bc that kind of person still id w both gender
m neutral f how the scale works
- more recent term is agender can infer an ind is gender neutral, but for some this is an
ID in itself
- cognitive developmental theorists how do we develop gender ID’s
o Kohlberg gender development is a process of making sense of the world,
including ones own body and its relationship to society
Begins early and progresses throughout life in a series of stages

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Involves both bio and environmental process in which kids organize and ID
w various social roles, concepts, and attitudes
- Learning theorists impact of social and physical environments on inds
o Inds internalize the norms and practices of gender through their experiences in
the world
Learn incentives and punishments
- bem weaves cognitive and learning theory into gender schema theory inds gender
schema as a network of assoc about concepts of m/f that organize and guide an inds
o over time they develop a unique and personalize framework for understanding
the world and its expectations
doing gender
- humans display gender through cues hairstyle, body lang, clothing
o but it is more than an external costume
- west and zimmermman a social performance or something we do
o how we are constantly doing gender
o invoked, performance, reinforced
o gender is a verb
o inds perform gender as it is prescribed by society under the façade that it is
accountability structures exists to ensure they are meeting social
o in a constant state of learning and then acting a methodological routine and
ongoing accomplishment
- West and fenstermaker apply the aforementioned concept to race and class divisions in
what is doing difference ongoing routine of performance social difference
o Difference btwn inds are reinforced at the interaction levevl
o Social accountability structure is in place to promote differences
- Some deliberately do gender in ways that are considered atypical gender
nonconformity (genderbending)
o Rebel to make a statement about the oppressive nature of expectations
clothing, pronoun use, appearance
o Disrupts gender order
o Lorber intentionally breaking the rules actually preserves boundaries
Society notices that something isn’t right – it doesn’t challenge the
expectations of the two gender categories
- Children violate gender norms in a variety of ways
o Playing w wrong toys, expressing desire to be the other sex
Tomboys accepted until you hit puberty, and then Is criticized
For boys there is less acceptance for nonconformity
Called a pinkboy which stigmatizes him and the fam
o Diagnose w a disorder gender identity disorder or gender dysphoria
Those who experience distress w sex and gender they were assigned at
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