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STATS 2B03 (25)
Chapter 1

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Aaron Childs

STATS 2B03: Statistical Methods for Science Chapter 1: Introduction to Biostatistics 1.2 Some Basic Concepts - data: numbers that result from the taking of a measurement and those that result from the process of counting - statistics: field of study that’s concerned with (1) the collection, organization, summarization, and analysis of data; and (2) the drawing of inferences about a body of data when only a part of the data is observed. Purpose of statistics is to investigate and evaluate the nature and meaning of this information - sources of data: the performance of statistical activities is motivated by the need to answer a question:  routinely kept records  surveys  experiments  external sources - biostatistics: when data analyzed are derived from the biological sciences and medicine to distinguish this particular application of statistical tools and concepts - variable: if we observe a characteristic we find that it takes on different values in different persons, places, or things. The characteristic is not the same when observed in different possessors of it - quantitative variables: can be measured in the usual sense - qualitative variables: characteristics that can be categorizes - random variable: when the values obtained arise as a result of chance factors, so they cannot be predicted in advance. Values resulting from measurement procedures are referred to as observations or measurements - discrete random variable: discrete variable is characterized by gaps or interruptions in the values that it can assume. - Continuous random variable: does not possess the gaps or interruptions characteristic of a discrete random variable - Population: largest collection of values of a random variable for which we have an interest at a particular time, defined by our sphere of interest. Fixed number of values (finite) vs. endless succession of values (infinite) - Sample: a part of a population 1.3 Measurement and Measurement scales - measurement: assignment of numbers to objects or events according to a set of rules - nominal scale: lowest measurement scale. Cosists of naming observations or classifying them into various mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive categories - ordinal scale: when observations are not only different f
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