GNED 1101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1.1: Literary Modernism

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Chapter 1 Logic
Section 1.1
Statements
A statement is a sentence that is either true or false, but not both simultaneously
Sentences that are opinions, commands, or questions are not statements
In symbolic logic we use the lowercase letters p, q, r, s to represent statements
Complex Statements
Breaking down complex statements into smaller/simple situations
o How they connect determines the final outcome
o 2 statements can be;
Statement
1
Statement
2
True
True
False
False
True
False
False
False
Negating Statements
The negation of a statement is its opposite
The negation of a true statement is a false statement and the negation of a false
statement is a true statement
o The statement “Shakespeare wrote the television series moderna family” can be
negated as “Shakespeare did not write the television series modern family”.
o The statement “Today is not Monday” can be negated as “Today is Monday”
Negation of a statement is represented by
o Thus statements p, q, r, s, when negated are represented as p, q, r, s
o The symbol means “not”
o Represent statement P symbolically. p
Chicago O’Hare is the world’s busiest airport
Express its negation in words
o Chicago O’Hare is not the world’s busiest airport
Quantified Statements
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Document Summary

A statement is a sentence that is either true or false, but not both simultaneously. Sentences that are opinions, commands, or questions are not statements. In symbolic logic we use the lowercase letters p, q, r, s to represent statements. Breaking down complex statements into smaller/simple situations: how they connect determines the final outcome, 2 statements can be; The negation of a statement is its opposite. Negation of a statement is represented by : thus statements p, q, r, s, when negated are represented as p, q, r, s, the symbol (cid:373)ea(cid:374)s (cid:862)(cid:374)ot(cid:863, represent statement p symbolically. Chi(cid:272)ago o"hare is the (cid:449)orld"s (cid:271)usiest airport. Express its negation in words: chi(cid:272)ago o"hare is (cid:374)ot the (cid:449)orld"s (cid:271)usiest airport. In english we frequently encounter statements containing the words all, some, or no (none). A statement containing one of these words is a quantified statement: examples;

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